This article emphasizes over the important role markets play by matching supply and demand of the factors of production through the form of contact between supply and demand between buyer and seller. Author furthermore throws light on the subject that there exists a different kind of labor in the rural and the urban markets. However, all these markets are interlinked to each other.
The marketing system plays an important role by adding value and generating employment. As per sources in the U.S the highest percentage of employment is generated by marketing development. Author further says that agriculture in Asia, due toi scientific and technological developments has changed a lot over the years. This change has primarily been coming in the attitude of the farmers. The farmers now consider farming not only a way of life, but also a form of business. The author further states that the benefits of the technological advancement can be reaped if simultaneouinstitutional changes can also be made. Benjamin Frankiln once said: An investment in knowledge pays the best interest”.
Unfortunately, people in rural areas are still living in the age of darkness without reliable information about markets.
Thus, market information is extremely important for carrying out any activity particularly in marketing. The market information might be furnished by two means. Market research and market intelligence. In market research , we tried to find out consumer tastes and requirements and likely changes in consumer habits. Market inteligence comes through firstly, short term information about day to day prices and secondly long term information about production and consumption.
Socio – Economic Determinants of Labor Mobility
The article starts by suggesting that the human resource factors as the differential component in a two sector rural – urban economy. This difference forces labor to shift to areas where return are higher. The adjustment continues until, theoretically speaking marginal revenue equals marginal costs and a state of equilibrium is achieved.
The Harris – Todaro model further refines the migration model by advancing the expected income hypothesis which says that the prospective migrants respond expected rather than the actual difference in rural urban wages . So, the probability of finding a job also matter in the decision to migrate.
The variables affecting migration decision have been identified as human capital, commitment to job, place of residence anfd costs related to migration. A survey was conducted in this regard and results were compiled with the consideration of such factors as age, sex, marital status, years of migration and place of residence e.t.c.
The study reveals that higher education induces a person to migrate. The age factor does not matters much.. Self employed are less likely to migrate as compared to unemployed or public and private firms employs.
Those who live in a nuclear have weaker incentives to migrate compared to others with extended families. The greater the number of children going to school, the greater will be the cost to relocate and have lesser migrants. With the ownership of land, a similar trend was observed as well.
Agricultural Growth in Pakistan
This article starts off by stating the factual situation of the agricultural sector. It states that growth in agricultural sector in Pakistan has been unstable and its prospects remain unclear in Pakistan. In ‘60s, the agricultural rate was phenomenally high. It slowed down in ‘70s and and now there is again a moderate growth in this sector.
However, there always have been wide variables between regions and the income groups and the level of income inequality.
The slow down in the ‘70s had a significant effect on the cash crops like cotton and sugar cane. Wheat and rice crops showed only a slight importance. The report cited that green revolution has lost its steam and further improvements would require change in conditions of soil as well as cultivation practises.Institutioinal support for breeding and multiplication of seeds, for textile services and the availability of inputs like fertlizers, pesticides, tubewells e.t.c.
The land augmentation techniques should be Implemented as they are the need of ther day. The uncertainity caused by PPP land reforms in the ‘70s were also instrumentsal in the slow down of the agricultural growth.
The new military government did not implement even some of the positive steps taken by the PPP government. It emphasizes more upon suppressing the symptoms rather than alleviating the causes. There was no change in land revenue systems, but marginal change in its administration. The water logging and salinity menace was not handled properly and instead of land augmenting actions temporary measures as support prices and subsidies were supported.
Developing Rural Entrepreneurship: Khan, Rao Abdul Rauf. Pp. 5- 7. Economic Outlook, March 1992. (Source no. 1)
Strategy for Rural Industrialization- Imperative to remove Unemployment and Underemployment: Khan, Rao Abdul Rauf. Pp. 35 — 37. Economic Outlook, March 1992 (Source No.3)
The Development of Rural People: Myths and Approaches: Dr. Khan, Mahmood Hassan. Pp 379 — 390. The Pakistan Development Review Vol. XXVII, No. Part I, Winter 1988 (Source No.2)
Conventional Economic concepts Challenged. Poor Countries Must Develop the Mass Sector: Mullick, M.a. Hussein. Pp. 88 — 93. The Pakistan Development Review, August 1993 (Source No.4)
Education and Economic Development. Kirmani, S.M.A. Pp 21 — 24. Economic Outlook, September 1996. (Source No.5)
Irrigation System in Pakistan. Khan, Aftab Ahmed. Pp 31 — 35. Economic Outlook, April 1995. (Source no.6)
Importance of Market Information in Rural Labor Sector. Khan, Rao Abdul Rauf. Pp 29 — 33. Economic Outlook, March 1996 (Source no.8)
Sons of the Soil. Qutub, Syed Ayub. Pp 34 – 35. Economic Outlook, March 1996 (Source no.7)
A note on the Measure of Poverty and Income inequality in Pakistan: Some Observations on Methodologies. Mujahid, G.B.S. Pp 365 – 378. Pakistan Development Review, December 1988. (Source No.9)
Socio — Economic Determinants of Labor Mobility. Ahmed, Saigol Din. PP 141- 157. Pakistan Development Review. Spring 1992 (Source No.10)
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