Who is responsible for Today’s Pakistan? – Abid Ali
In the Political discussion of Pakistan, one thing is always common that Politicians was Responsible for Today’s Pakistan. Is in reality Politicians are Responsible for it? In this article, we will try to identify those who are in actual responsible for Today’s Pakistan.
In 70 years of Pakistani Politics Establishment has a vital role in Pakistani politics. All big political parties have been made by the establishment to strengthen Army business and to extend the role of Army in Pakistan. From 1947 to 1958 Army was the junior partner of Bureaucracy but in 1958 army took the control of the country and kept Bureaucracy as its junior partner. In the initial 10 years of Pakistan, independence Politicians were declared the sole responsible for the instability in the country by Army and Judiciary. They were of the opinion that Politicians were incapable that’s why the Martial law was the necessity of time and Our Judiciary legalized the martial law of Ayub Khan. In Ayub Era the country becomes the ally of USA and due to capitalist policies, the Ratio of poverty in Pakistan reached to 60%. We spend millions of rupees on 1965 war and the result of War was Utter Failure. Then due to extreme criticism Ayub khan Transfer the Govt to another dictator Yakhya Khan. Yakhya khan announced the General Election Date but in reality, he did not agree to transfer the power.
Election Took pace and Awami league and PPP emerged two Big political parties in Pakistan. Now it was the responsibility of the Existing Govt to transfer the power to Winning Party but Army Govt could not do this and threw the ball into Z A Bhutto’s Home. Z A Butto Called the meeting of All parties but Shiekh Mujeeb did not join it due to army operation In Bengal. Crices arose and after massive brutalities, Mass killings and Rape cases with Bengalis women, India intervene because India did not want to lose the opportunity. Partition of Bengal also associated with Z A Bhutto and Shiekh Mujeeb, but in actuality it was army Govt who did not want that power should be transferred to Bengalis. Ayesha Siddiqa wrote in her book that one of army officer said that don’t worry we will not transfer power to these Black and bloody Bengalis. But in our media and Bengal was severely criticized and the survival of West Pakistan was at the stake. Now the military has no option except to transfer power to a civilian Govt because the world structure had completely changed and in world structure, there was no room for Dictatorship. Secondly, Army itself wants that transfer should be transfer to civilian because the army was demoralized and our Ninety Thousands of soldiers were in the custody of Indian army and a dictator could not release them from the Indian govt.
Power transfer to civilian Govt and this was for the first time in Pakistan that army went back from politics and control was completely in the hands of Z A Bhutto. Z A Bhutto had to build up a new Pakistan. He has many problems but the most important was the making of the Constitution and Release of Ninety Thousands of Solider. Z A Bhutto addressed these problems very quickly, He formed two constitutions On the Interim constitution of 1972 and Second full pledge constitution of 1973. He also released soldier from Indian govt by sighing Shimla Accord. Then he introduced a lot of social, economic and political reforms. His nationalization policy got success, his administrative reforms was outstanding. The wages of labour increased up to 200%. He build and strengthens the Pakistan army and huge weapons were given to them, Atomic program was initiated. But latter on Z A Bhutto committed a mistake that he started using Army for Political gains. Now army was again involved in politics, ISI especially was very active in Politics but they did all these things on the advice of Z A Bhutto. Means army was not independent but under the Civilian Govt but it was not army of civilian rather it was British trained army which always acted against its people. Due to welfare policies of Z A Bhutto People voted PPP in 1977 and got 2/3rd majority in General election 1977. Here army again rebirth from Ashes and Stood against the leader who had built this army after 1971 War with India. Crises were created through puppet politician and army took the control of the country. In these 70 years this was the only term in which army went back and we look the development in this era of civilian rule.
During Zia Ul Haq martial law country was completely in the control of army. Again politicians were banned, political parties were banned and Bhutto family was compelled to leave the country. Zia strengthens the army and extended the role of army to every institution of the country. Army established their businesses in the country, got seats in css and kept major political posts in army hands. Without politicians support army could not survive for long term so in order to gain the street power, Zia used the religion. All religious parties were part of ZIA martial law. There is no need to mention Zia fragile policies for Pakistan and everyone know about it. During Zia era, army controlled all over Pakistan and now for the army to control politician and other key figures became very easy. Zia introduced 8th constitutional amendment through which president was empowered to suspend the assemblies at any time. This weapon was used later against Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif. So in 10 11 years of military Govt Pakistan was gain nothing but Extremism, Conservatism and Intolerance become the permanent element of Pakistani society.
After Zia martial law elections were held and power transfer to Benazir Bhutto but on conditions that President would from Army, Finance minister would be appointed by Army, the Foreign policy would not be touched by civilian govt and especially Govt would not talk about Afghan Policy. Benazir Bhutto accepted these conditions but she was the daughter of Z A Bhutto and then she started using her power as Prime Minister of Pakistan. She was dismissed by the president on the Gross misconduct but in actual the matter was of the Appointing of Chief of Army staff. Benazir Bhutto appointed her own choice Army chief but it was not acceptable to our army and just after 2 years her Govt was dismissed by President under Article 58 2B introduced by Zia Ul Haq.
This drama took place after every civilian govt come into power because the army was not willing to allow these politicians to work according to the constitution. So we cannot say the civilian govt from 1988 to 1999 as Civilian because power was somewhere else. Major Decisions were made in GHQ in all these 10 years of so-called civilian govt. Nawaz Sharif after winning the 1997 election with 2/3rd thought that now he could control the country but he was wrong. The only development in Nawaz Sharif this era was passing of 13th Constitutional amendment through which power of suspending of Assembly transfer to Prime minister.
Then again the military coup of Musharaf led the country to terrorism, insecurity and clashes with neighbour countries. Musharaf Received massive amount from IMF and USA in shape of loans which further pushed the country into economic crises. In Mushraf Era Taliban Reached to Swat. Bomb Balsting, Attacks on Educational Institution and instability become the future of Pakistan. Again circumstances were out of control for Military Govt and again this was decided to allow the civilian Govt because the military has known that these politicians can be easily handled.
So the election of 2008 held and civilian govt came to power with the new vision of Late Benazir Bhutto. This PPP govt have to address all the issues left by Gen Pervez Musharaf behind the scene and PPP Govt delivered. It tried their best to control terrorist activities, law and order situation and economic instability in the country. PPP Govt Initiated BISP program which benefiting over 18 lakh people. But this Govt was also not acceptable to our establishment and disqualified the Sitting prime minister on not writing letter to Swiss Govt against the President who has Immunity by The Constitution. Same was done with Nawaz Sharif and he was Also disqualified by Supreme court and then sent him behind the bars with Maryam Nawaz in order to weaken the political campaign and to transfer the vote of Nawaz Sharif to Imran Khan by the allegation of false cases.
Now for a while think about the present situation of Pakistan and decide who is responsible for all this, Politician or Someone else. I leave it to you people?
Abid Ali is a student of Pakistan Studies at Government college Mansehra.