Report Business Report is based Analysis of Punjab Government and all figures are quoted by Government.
Seafood: Products and relative Value Addition…………………………………………………………… 7
World Seafood Trade : Trends (Exerts from FAO report 1997)………………………………….. 7
Production and state of fisheries resources………………………………………………………………… 7
Fish utilization………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
Recent Trends In International Fish Trade………………………………………………………………. 11
Pakistan’s Share in International Market…………………………………………………………………. 13
Composition of Pakistan’s Exports…………………………………………………………………………… 14
Source ITC Data 1997………………………………………………………………………………………………. 14
Pakistan’s Fish Export as % of Total Export……………………………………………………………. 14
Fish Quantity Export as % of Total Catch, Total Marine Catch and Total Edible Catch 15
It is alarming to note that export volumes are decreasing as percent of marine and marine edible catch. The situation mainly reflects deterioration in quality due to obsolete storage and handling conditions.………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15
State of Pakistan’s Marine Fisheries Sector…………………………………………………………….. 15
Fishing Settlements/Grounds…………………………………………………………………………………… 15
Fish Landing Points/Harbors……………………………………………………………………………………. 16
Karachi Fish Harbour……………………………………………………………………………………………… 17
Korangi Fish Harbor……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 18
Source: FAO reports 1997 Data…………………………………………………………………………………. 24
SHRIMP CULTURE………………………………………………………………………………………………. 26
CEPHALOPOD RESOURCES AND LANDINGS……………………………………………………. 27
Existing Fisheries Resources and Incremental Potential……………………………………………. 28
Channels of Distribution for Fish and Fish Products………………………………………………….. 31
Structural Problems of Marketing……………………………………………………………………………. 32
Channels of Disposition of the Catch……………………………………………………………………….. 33
Channels of Disposition of Fish (Marine & Inland) (in tonnes)………….. 33
Production of Marine Edible/Inedible Fish………………………………………………………………… 34
Total Production of Edible Marine and Inland Fish Available…………………………………….. 34
Voyage Time:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 36
Average Voyage time……………………………………………………………………………………………… 37
Post Harvesting……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 37
Landing (at harbor)………………………………………………………………………………………………… 37
Processing Capacities……………………………………………………………………………………………… 40
Fisheries Related Rules And Acts……………………………………………………………………………. 41
Legislation of the Country………………………………………………………………………………………. 41
Fax: 51 – 9221246………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 51
Government of Pakistan…………………………………………………………………………………………. 51
Mr. Moazzam Khan………………………………………………………………………………………………… 51
List of fishery Related Industry and Associations……………………………………………………… 53
Fishery Related Research & Educational Institutes………………………………………………….. 53
Pakistan has a total coastline of 1,050 km and a total fishing area of approximately 300,270 sq. kms. Pakistan’s fishing grounds are termed as highly rich in marine life with a vast variety of species having commercial value. However, this potential is not reflected in the export earning from fisheries sector, which has remained stagnant around 150 million US$, during last decade. This situation is mainly attributed to highly unorganized nature of private sector, lack of focus in Government policies and little institutional investment (in public and private sector projects) in this sector.
Pakistan’s export stood at 171 million US$ in 1997-98. Whereas, a rough estimate based on maximum sustainable yield figures, existing value addition, and foreign benchmarks (Indian, Bangladesh and Malaysia benchmarks for %age of landed catch exported) puts our total export potential from this sector to around 1.0 billion US $ from existing natural resources. Including a high potential area, i.e., aquaculture, in our fisheries sector, can yield even higher export earnings from fisheries sector in Pakistan.
Pakistan’s domestic consumption of fish is termed as one of the lowest in the world at 1.6 KG per person/Year. This consumption pattern coupled with increased inland fish production (91,631 tons in 19987 to 167,530 tons in 1997) leaves little room for domestic marketing of marine fish. Therefor, the focus remains to be foreign markets mainly Europe, US, Japan and Middle Eastern countries. A brief analysis of Pakistan’s export products in fisheries sectors reveals over dependence on few species with little value addition. In particular, over exploitation of shrimp species, reflected by over 66% share in export by value, poses a very strong threat to the industry as shrimp landing figures are declining and there are no signs of shrimp aquaculture development in the country. The dependence on a limited number of species causes an imbalance resulting in over exploitation of few and under-exploitation of other species. This imbalance is also reflected in fishing grounds with over 99% of landed catch being generated from continental shelf (0-35 NM) while EEZ (35-200NM) contributing less than 1%. Also our decreasing average unit prices (2.85 US$/kg in 19987-88 to 2.22 US$/kg in 1997-98) puts extra pressures on the industry for increased volumes. All of the above situation results in a fishing industry where we are catching more and more of limited number of species in already overexploited fishing grounds and selling these at low prices to our foreign buyers. Marine resources mismanagement is also aided by an obsolete fishing fleet and fishing methods, use of banned nets, fishing in prohibited breeding areas, poor landing conditions, highly unskilled fishermen and non-existent of value added processing industry.
The negligence in exploiting marine fisheries resources is highly regrettable given the state of world markets. The world market stood at 52 billion US$ in 1997 with Pakistan’s share as less than 0.33%. Given the changing eating habits and depleting natural resources, world seafood market is termed as mainly “sellers market”. The focus in fishing is shifting from already exploited regions to under-exploited areas because of conservation and environment pressures. However, despite such favorable circumstances, Pakistan’s seafood exports have decreased during recent past with 1992 showing highest figures, i.e., 181 million US$.
The fisheries sector in Pakistan offers direct employment to over one million people, most of which work as fishermen. There are a large number of fishermen’s villages all along Pakistan’s coast line where fishing is primary source of earnings for centuries. The stagnant fisheries sector directly effect standard of living of this community. In addition, these large socioeconomic groups face economic survival problems due to marine resource mismanagement, decreased landing figures and problems faced by seafood processors (who buy their produce) in export marketing because of poor quality product.
Based on the export potential, current and potential employment opportunities and threats to survival of seafood industry in Pakistan, SMEDA decided to review the industrial value chain from harvesting to processing, with the objective to develop a strategy for optimal utilization of our marine resources. The Fisheries Development Strategy incorporates public and private sector interventions in all effecting areas, i.e., regulation, technology, management, marketing and human resources with a view to increase export earnings, create and sustain employment and bring about qualitative change in lives of millions of people involved in this trade.
The process of strategy development for fisheries sector was based on data collection from all available resources. In addition to other information, following sources were reviewed for strategy development purposes:
- International Trade Commission data for fisheries trade
- FAO data and reports on fisheries sector
- Marine Fisheries Development (MFD) reports
- Export Promotion Bureau data on fisheries sector
- Karachi Fisheries Harbor Authority (KFHA) reports
- Fishermen’s Cooperative Society landing and auction/commission data
- Infofish reports on Fishery sector profiles of different countries
- Relevant federal and provincial regulations for fisheries sector in Pakistan
- Relevant national and international regulations on seafood quality control
- Stock survey reports
Another important element of SMEDA’s methodology was close liaison with stakeholders, i.e., fishermen, boat owners, middlemen, seafood processors and relevant government agencies. This ensured that the strategy is based on existing ground realities and that the stakeholder’s point of view is incorporated for future development. In this context various office bearers were consulted from following organizations:
- Marine Fisheries Department (MFD), Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock (MINFAL), Government of Pakistan (GOP)
- Export Promotion Bureau (EPB), Ministry of Commerce, GOP
- Korangi Fish harbor Authority (KoFHA), MINFAL, GOP
- Fisheries Department, Government of Sindh (GOS)
- Karachi Fisheries Harbor Authority (KFHA), GOS
- National Institute of Oceanography (NOI)
- Center of Excellence in Marine Biology, Karachi University
- Fishermen’s Cooperative Society (FCS)
- Pakistan Seafood and Industries Association (PSIA) – both factions
- Sindh Trawler Owners and Fishermen Association (STOFA)
- Karachi Trawler and Boat Owners Group
Numerous meetings were held with personnel representing above organizations. In particular, the private industry was consulted at every step of the strategy development process. In addition, primary research was also conducted to develop value chain of fishing sector. SMEDA interviewed a sample of people and closely observed the following areas to develop an understanding of the existing processes and facilities:
- Fishing boats
- Unloading areas and the processes at Karachi Fish harbor (KFH)
- Auction halls and the process at KFH
- Chiller Rooms at KFH
- Processing plants
- Shrimp Peeling Sheds
Number of meetings were held with representatives on NCB’s for discussing financing arrangements for funding public and private sector initiatives in fisheries sector.
A reference list of reports consulted and contacts for relevant agencies are attached as annexes for future reference.
Mainly three groups of Molluscs characterized by internal skeleton, tentacles surrounding mouth and quick movement by means of water, jet propulsion, namely cuttlefish, squid, and octopus.
The group of species Abalones, winkles, conchs, Oysters, Scallops, Pectens and fresh water molluscs.
Local name for the group consisting of Penaeus merguiensis; the three most valuable species of shrimp. It is also called white shrimp.
Local name for the group of nine species of shrimp commercially next in importance to Jaira shrimp. It is also called brown shrimp.
Local name for the group of three least valuable shrimp species.
Penaeid and non penaeid shrimp:
The commercially importance marine shrimp species that fall under the biological family called Penaeidae are referred to as a penaeid shrimp while the rest including small acetes shrimp as well as fresh water prawn.
Shrimp & Prawn:
The marine water shrimp species are generically referred to as either shrimp or prawn while fresh water shrimp species as prawn.
Tuna & Tuna like Species:
Five major tuna species – Skipjack, Yellowfin, Albacore, Bigeye and Bluefin are treated as tuna while the others like kawakawa, longtail tuna, marlins, bonitos, seerfish, and so on of scombridae family are treated as tuna-like species or small tunas.
Cracker often containing minced fish and a common snack in Southeast Asia.
Frozen in blocks of 4 lb/1.8 kg or 2 kg or more for further processing.
The frozen shrimp or fish at the temperature of around minus 40 degree Celsius.
The fresh shrimp or fish chilled at around 0 degree Celsius
Individual quick freezing a technique for sea food processing, in which food is freeze with in 3-5 minutes.
Maximum sustainable yield, optimal catch quantity, catching below this limit is termed as underexploitation and above this limit catching is termed as over exploitation
The catch of fish through the natural resources like Seas, Rivers, etc.
The production of fish by culturing it, like culture of shrimp farms, fish farms, ponds , both marine and fresh water.
Seafood: Products and relative Value Addition
The table below is an estimate of relative commercial importance of major categories of seafood. The table only accounts for commercial categories regardless of individual specie prices. The categories are ranked on a 10 (highest) to 1 (lowest) scale according to their value addition.
Seafood Product Category Relative Value Addition
Live / Assorted Ready to Eat 10
Processed (Simple Ready to Eat) 8
Processed (Ready to Cook) 7
Frozen (IQF) 5
Frozen (Blast) 4
Dried / Salted 3
Fish Meal 1
World Seafood Trade : Trends (Exerts from FAO report 1997)
In 1995 and 1996 total world fish production expanded rapidly, reaching 121 million tones in the second year. Aquaculture output grew dramatically during the biennium while capture fisheries production registered a slight increase. Supplies for human consumption increased considerably, rising from 14.3 kg per caput (live weight equivalent) in 1994 to 15.7 kg in 1997.
Trade increased during the 1996-1997 biennium, although at a slower pace than in the previous two years, and the value of world exports of fish and fishery products reached US$52.5 billion in 1996, with developing countries achieving a net trade surplus of US$16.6 billion.
Production and state of fisheries resources
Total capture fisheries production in 1996 amounted to 94.6 million tones. China, Peru, Chile, Japan, the United States, the Russian Federation and Indonesia (in that order) were the top producer countries in 1996, together accounting for more than half of world capture fisheries production in terms of tonnage. Marine capture fisheries continued to account for more than 90 percent of world capture fisheries production, with the remainder coming from inland waters.
World marine capture fisheries production reached a new record of 87.1 million tones in 1996. However, as in previous years, the rate of increase continued to slow during the biennium. In the 1950s and 1960s, total world marine fisheries production increased on average by as much as 6 percent per year, doubling from 17 million tones in 1950 to 34.9 million tones in 1961, and doubling again in the following two decades to reach 68.3 million tones by 1983. In the following decade, the average annual rate of increase dropped to 1.5 percent and to a mere 0.6 percent during the 1995/96 biennium. The Northwest Pacific remains by far the most important fishing area in terms of both volume and value of landings
World fisheries production and utilization
1990 1992 1994 1995 1996 19971
Aquaculture 8.17 9.39 12.11 13.86 15.61 17.13
Capture 6.59 6.25 6.91 7.38 7.55 7.70
Total inland 14.76 15.64 19.02 21.24 23.16 24.83
Aquaculture 4.96 6.13 8.67 10.42 10.78 11.14
Capture 79.29 79.95 85.77 85.62 87.07 86.03
Total marine 84.25 86.08 94.44 96.04 97.85 97.17
Total aquaculture 13.13 15.52 20.77 24.28 26.38 28.27
Total capture 85.88 86.21 92.68 93.00 94.63 93.73
Total world fisheries 99.01 101.73 113.46 117.28 121.01 122.00
Human consumption 70.82 72.43 79.99 86.49 90.62 92.50
Reduction 28.19 29.29 33.47 30.78 30.39 29.50
State of marine fish resources. Overall, the state of exploitation of the main fish stocks (in fisheries for which assessment information is available) has remained more or less unchanged since the early 1990s. Recent reviews tend to confirm that, among the major fish stocks for which information is available, an estimated 44 percent are fully exploited and are therefore producing catches that have reached or are very close to their maximum limit, with no room expected for further expansion. About 16 percent are overexploited and likewise leave no room for expansion; moreover, there is an increasing likelihood that catches might decrease if remedial action is not undertaken to reduce or suppress overexploited. Another 6 percent appear to be depleted, with a resulting loss in total production, not to mention the social and economic losses derived from the uncontrolled and excessive fishing pressure and 3 percent seem to be recovering slowly.
Inland capture fisheries production. Nominally, exploitation of inland fisheries resources amounts to 7.6 million tones, equal to 8 percent of total capture in 1996. Exploitation is mainly of finfish, although molluscs (7 percent) and crustaceans (6 percent) may be locally important. Six of the ten top producers for inland capture fisheries are in Asia: China, with a production of nearly 1.8 million tones, produces 23 percent of the world total and nearly three times as much as the second largest producer, India. Altogether, the top ten producer countries account for about 62 percent of world landings from inland capture fisheries.
Aquaculture provided 20 percent of global fisheries production (and 29 percent of food fish) in 1996. Most aquaculture production (15.1 million tones) originated in freshwater. Of the remainder, 9.7 million tones were produced in marine environments and about 1.6 million tones in brackish water environments. These figures are excluding the production of aquatic plants, which amounted to 7.7 million tones in 1996.
Fish for food
In recent years, the volume of fishery products marketed in their fresh state has increased not only in absolute terms but also as a percentage of all uses of fish. In 1996, about 33 percent of all fish was marketed fresh compared with 20 percent in 1986.
The supply of frozen fish is growing in both developed and developing countries. The production of frozen fish fillets, shrimps and prawns has increased in volume, as has the supply of fish in the form of ready-to-eat meals and other convenience food products.
Fish for feed
After 1994, when nearly 32 million tones of fish (representing nearly 30 percent of the total world fisheries production) were used for feed, there was a decrease in this usage in 1995. As a consequence of the El Niño phenomenon, the stocks of small pelagics in the Eastern Pacific are expected to shrink and the volumes landed in the course of 1998 may consequently be several million tones below those recorded in 1996.
Trade in fish and fisheries product
Fish, shellfish and fishery products are widely traded, with no less than 195 countries having exported part of their production and some 180 countries having reported fishery imports of varying amounts in 1996. In parallel with the increase in production, international trade has continued to grow, and at an accelerating rate in recent years. The largest part of this growth is real in that it is linked to the expansion of the world’s economies and also reflects the increased availability – owing mainly to aquaculture production – of species in high demand as well as the sustained demand for fishmeal.
Export volumes reached 22 million tones in 1996, which is nearly three times the volume traded in 1976 and, when reconverted into the estimated live weight equivalent, represents 40 percent of overall fisheries production. This level has been reached after a period of relative stability, with foreign trade accounting for around 30 percent of production.
In 1996, the export sector earned US$52.5 billion, representing 11 percent of the value of agricultural exports and about 1 percent of total merchandise trade. The share of trade in fish and fishery products in all agricultural trade has increased somewhat over the last decade.
Although fishery trade is not prominent at the global level, in some countries its contribution to foreign currency earnings is vital to the national economy; for example, fish and fishery products represent more than 75 percent of total merchandise exports for Iceland, the Faeroe Islands, Greenland, Maldives and Seychelles. In a further 20 countries, including Chile, Ecuador, Kiribati, Madagascar, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Peru and Senegal, fisheries exports account for between 75 and 10 percent of total merchandise exports.
In terms of value, fishery exports are almost entirely (95 percent) composed of food products, although, in terms of volume, fishmeal and fish oil account for a much greater share. In value terms, more than half of the fishery export trade originates in developing economies and consists largely of imports into developed economies. While Thailand was the leading world exporter of fish products between 1993 and 1996, at a value of US$3.4 billion, Norway’s fishery exports were the highest in 1997. Japan, with US$15.5 billion worth of imports in 1997, is the leading importer while the United States absorbs about 10 percent of world fish imports. These two countries and the European Community (including the value of the intra-EC trade) import 75 percent (in value terms) of internationally traded fishery products.
Recent Trends In International Fish Trade
- World fish production expanded substantially from 117 million t in 1995 to 121 million tons in 1996. Estimates for 1997 indicate a lower level, due to lower pelagic catch as in South America. China is now the top producer with some 32 million tons in 1996. Peru was the second major fishing nation with catches exceeding 9 million tons. TABLE -3 TABLE 1 – World Fish Production and Trade Unit 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996World fish production Growth over previous year million tons % 98.9 101.7 +2.9 105.2 +3.4 113.5 +7.8 117.3 +3.4 121.0 +3.2 Exports of fishery products Growth over previous year ‘000 million US$ % 38.9 40.2 +3.3 41.4 +3.0 47.6 +15.0 52.4 +10.0 53.1 +1.3 Developed countries Growth over previous year ‘000 million US$ % 21.2 21.7 +2.2 21.2 -2.2 23.6 +11.3 25.4 +7.9 26.6 +4.7 Developing countries Growth over previous year ‘000 million US$ % 17.7 18.6 +4.7 20.2 +9.0 24.1 +19.0 26.9 +12.0 26.4 -1.9 Imports of fishery products Growth over previous year ‘000 million US$ % 43.5 45.3 +4.0 44.6 -1.5 51.1 +14.6 56.1 +9.8 56.9 +1.4 Developed countries Growth over previous year ‘000 million US$ % 37.3 38.9 +3.3 37.9 -1.7 43.3 +14.2 47.4 +9.6 47.6 +0.3 Developing countries Growth over previous year ‘000 million US$ % 6.2 6.7 +8.6 6.7 -0.2 7.8 +16.8 8.7 +10.9 9.3 +7.1 Developing countries’ surplus Growth over previous year ‘000 million US$ % 11.6 11.9 +2.5 13.5 +14.1 16.2 +20.0 18.3 +12.6 17.2 -6.2 Developed countries’ net imports Growth over previous year ‘000 million US$ % 16.1 16.9 +4.7 16.7 -1.0 19.7 +17.8 22.0 +11.7 21.0 -4.8 Source: FAO Fisheries Department 2. The increased volume of international trade in fishery products in 1996 was associated with higher trade in low-value commodities such as fishmeal and oil. The result was that the value of exports increased less than their volume to US$ 53 100 million. First indications for 1997 show an increase in the value of fishery products traded, due to higher prices.
- Developed countries accounted for about 84% of total imports of fishery products in 1997 in value terms. Japan was again the biggest importer of fishery products, accounting for some 30% of the global total. This share has been stable over the years. The European Community (EC) further increased its dependency on imports for its fish supply. The United States, besides being the world’s third major exporting country, was the second biggest importer. In 1996, fishery imports into all three major market areas increased.
- The increase in net receipts of foreign exchange by developing countries – deducting their imports from the total value of their exports – is impressive, rising from US$ 5 200 million in 1985 to US$ 17 200 million in 1996. For many developing nations, fish trade represents a significant source of foreign currency earnings.
- Major issues of international trade of fishery products during the past two years were: the change in quality control measures in the main importing countries; the concern of the general public on overexploitation of the resource; environmental concerns with regard to aquaculture; the end of the tuna-dolphin issue; the trade discussion on turtle excluding devices and the creation of the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC), to mention just a few. Many exporting countries felt the change in quality control measure. In August 1997, the EC stopped imports of seafood from India, Bangladesh and Madagascar. In December 1997, there was a decision to prohibit the import of fresh seafood from Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique and Uganda. The impact of these measures was severe in the seafood industry of these exporting countries, creating loss of employment and foreign exchange earnings of several hundreds of million of US dollars.
Pakistan’s Share in International Market
The following table shows Pakistan’s share in international seafood markets for year 1997.
Category World Mkt $ Quantity in Tons Pakistan Export Quantity in Tons % of world mkt in Value % of world in Quantity
Fresh Fish 6.11 Billion 1.5 Million 5 Million 3 thousand 0.008% 0.06%
Frozen Fish 7.50 Billion 4.1 Million 32 Million 26 thousand 0.043% 0.08%
Fish Fillets 6.50 Billion 2.1 Million 0 0 0 0
Fish Dried/Salted 1.1 Billion 0.18 Million 13.5 Million 21 thousand 0.123% 11.67%
Fish Salted 0 0 NA NA
Fish Smoked 378 Million 50 thousand NA NA NA NA
Fish Liver 310 Million 29 thousand NA NA NA NA
Fish Meal 9 Million 4 thousand NA NA NA NA
Shell Fish 11 Billion 1.3 Million 109 Million 21 thousand 0.173% 1.62%
Invertebrates 4 Billion 1.1 Million 10.06 Million 8 thousand 0.025% 0.73%
Ready to Eat 6 Billion 1.6 Million 4.7 Million 229 0.078% 0.01%
Total 52 Billion 12 Million 174.26 Million 79226 0.34% 0.66%
Source ITC Data 1997
Pakistan has exported 109 million worth of shellfish (shrimp species) and earned 32 million through export of frozen fish. Both these figures posses potential threat as shellfish landings are on decline and without any signs of shrimp aquaculture, Pakistan will face difficulty in maintaining export revenues earned from shellfish. Also frozen fish offers relatively low value addition. The 13.5 million earned from export of dried salted fish is also a negative sign as this product category is on the bottom end of value addition amongst seafood products.
Composition of Pakistan’s Exports
The table below shows distribution of Pakistan’s seafood export in different product categories.
Category Pakistan’s Export 1997 Quantity in Tons % of total Value % of total Quantity
Fresh Fish 5 Million 3 thousand 3% 4%
Frozen Fish 32 Million 26 thousand 18% 33%
Fish Fillets 0 0
Fish Dried/Salted 13.5 Million 21 thousand 8% 27%
Fish Salted 0 0
Fish Smoked NA NA NA NA
Fish Liver NA NA NA NA
Fish Meal NA NA NA NA
Shell Fish 109 Million 21 thousand NA NA
Invertebrates 10.06 Million 8 thousand 6% 10%
Ready to Eat 4.7 Million 229 3% 0%
Total 174.26 Million 79226 100% 100%
Source ITC Data 1997
Pakistan’s Fish Export as % of Total Export
The table below shows contribution of Pakistan’s seafood exports in total exports of Pakistan. As is evident, contribution by seafood sector is declining.
Year Pakistan’s Total Export (US$ million) Pakistan’s Total Fish Export (US$ million) Fish Export as % of Total Export
1994-95 8131 154.3 1.90%
1995-96 8707 140.7 1.62%
1996-97 8320 149.1 1.79%
1997-98 8628 171.5 1.99%
1998-99 7718 120.1 1.56%
Fish Quantity Export as % of Total Catch, Total Marine Catch and Total Edible Catch
The table below shows total catch exported as percentage of marine catch and marine edible catch. The table clearly shows a decline in %age export volumes from 1997 to 98. This is mainly because of deterioration in quality of seafood.
Year Total Catch Marine Catch Edible Marine Catch Pakistan’s Exports Export as % of T.catch Export as % of M.catch Export as %f of Edible M.Catch
In 000 Tons In 000 Tons In 000 Tons In 000 Tons % % %
1994 558,099 418,574 230372 62,669 11.23% 14.97% 27.20%
1995 541,917 405,492 220004 65,773 12.14% 16.22% 29.90%
1996 555,489 395,397 206953 79,577 14.33% 20.13% 38.45%
1997 589,731 422,201 211100 77,290 13.11% 18.31% 36.61%
1998 596,980 433,456 243306 77,554 12.99% 17.89% 31.88%
It is alarming to note that export volumes are decreasing as percent of marine and marine edible catch. The situation mainly reflects deterioration in quality due to obsolete storage and handling conditions.
State of Pakistan’s Marine Fisheries Sector
Major part of the fish catch in Pakistan is Marine, which forms 71 percent of the total catch. The Arabian Sea, which washes the coast of Sindh and Balochistan, has rich fish deposits of commercial significance in close proximity. Pakistan has a very long Range of coast-line with number of bays and broad continental shelf lying in front of Indus deltas and other natural factors which are ideal for growth of marine life in general and fisheries of commercial importance in particular.
The total seacoast of Pakistan is 682 miles, of which Balochistan and Sindh have 477 and 205 miles respectively. Of the Balochistan coastline Makran has 367 miles and Lasbella district of Kalat division 110 miles. Makran coast falls under Gawadar district, east of which is Lasbella district, to the west is Iran’s border, to the north is Turbat district and Arabian Sea is to the south. Lasbella district has Karachi to east, Gawadar to the west, Khuzdar to north and Arabian sea is to the south. The Baluchistan coast runs east to the west while Sindh coast runs diagonally from north to south. The coastline of Karachi is more than 110 miles long. It extends from lailath on the east situated on the first channel of Korangi creek upto Beda situated on the north west of Karachi on Sonmiani Bay.
There are 30 fishing settlements out of which 19 fishing villages are of permanent nature. Temporary fishing centers are inhabited only during fishing season and abandoned later on.
There are on the seacoast of Pakistan more than 30 species of shrimp, 10 species of crab, 5 species of lobster and about 70 commercial species of fish including sardine, Hilsa, shark, Mackerel, Butterfish, Pomfret, Sole, Tuna, sea bream, Jew fish and Cat Fish, Shark, Eel and shrimp.
Marine fishing is undertaken from right beyond the seacoast to 200 n. miles in the sea. The distance has been divided into two broad categories known as: (1) Coastal Water Fishing, and (2) Deep-sea fishing. Deep Sea is further divided in two zones. The distance specified are: up-to 12 n. miles for coastal water fishing, 12 to 35 n.miles for Zone 1 and 35 to 200 n. miles for Zone II.
Coastal water fishing is done in the villages along the coast that are predominately inhabited by fisherman whose main livelihood is fishing. The fishermen community is mainly Sindhis, Balochis, Kutchies, Zikries and Makranis. Karachi, which is the nucleus of fishing industry, is an old fishing settlement.
In Sindh the south of the Karachi Coastal area is Indus delta and has a number of fishing settlements in creeks, of which Keti Bunder is an important center.
In Balochistan the major centers for fish catching are (I) Ormara (ii) Kalmat (iii) Pasni (iv) Gawadar (v) Jiwani (vi) Kor Bandar, (vii) Ras Shumal Bundar (viii) Kapar (ix) Sur (x) Peshukan and Bandari. Lassbella district has Sonmiani, Damb and Gadani as its fishing centres.
Fish Landing Points/Harbors
The harbors and main landing points with their provincial location and relative importance, are as follows:
Province Relative Importance
- Karachi Sind **** H
- Korangi Sind *** H
- Ibrahim Haidery Sind **
- Shams peer Sind *
- Lath Basti Sind *
- Hawks Bay Coast Sind *
- Manjhar Sind *
- Sonari Sind *
- Mubarrak Village Sind *
- Kaitee Bandar Sind **
- Shah Bandar Sind **
- Kharo Chaan Sind **
- Jatthi Sind **
- Jhungi Sur Sind **
- Badeen Sind **
- Gowadar Baluchistan *** H
- Pasni Baluchistan *** H
- Ormara Baluchistan ***
- Gaddani Baluchistan **
- Bhunda Wari Baluchistan *
- Beroo Baluchistan *
- Sonmiani Daam Baluchistan **
Legends: * meets local users requirements
*** very important
**** most important
H = Fishing Harbor
Karachi Fish Harbour
The Karachi Fish Harbor was built in 1955-56. It is located at a distance of 5 km from the entrance of the Karachi commercial port. The total area available in the fish harbor is approx. 310,000 m2.
The infrastructure facilities available at the harbor include 10 floating piers i.e. pontoons (35 m x 5 m x approx. 2.8 m each) with a “head on” berthing capacity of 32 vessels on both sides of each pontoon. Ice / Bunker oil supply pier (35 x 55 m) is available on the west side of harbor entrance for future accommodation of 300 tons/day flake ice plant and an oil dispensing station. For maintenance and repair of large vessels one 80 m long slip way at a slope of 1:10 with a working platform of 31.5 x 12 m is available near the ice / bunker oil supply pier. For lifting and launching of smaller fishing vessels two reinforced concrete platforms (12 x 18 m each) are present on the west and north banks. Two fish market halls 115 m x 22 m and 94 m x 26.5 m respectively are located on the southern pier each having a separate cold store. Between these two fish market halls an ice store measuring 16 m x 5.5 m x 3.5 m is provisioned. On top of this store flake ice-manufacturing facility of 50 tons/day is planned. Current production capacity of the flake ice plant is 20 tons/day. 300-tons/day flake ice plant to be installed at the ice pier shall come on stream in first quarter of 2000.
Spread over the harbor, the other prevailing utility facilities include; FCS -substation in the industrial area and a substation on west bank near the ice / bunker oil supply pier which is directly connected with FCS-substation via a 11 kV cable, floodlights covering the entire harbor, two cabins for sewer pump stations, control tower on top of the old fish market, four toilet blocks with a 100 m3 capacity septic tank, two under ground concrete water storage tanks of approx. 100000 gallons and 60000 gallons and an overhead concrete water storage tank of approx. 24000 gallons with a newly provided chlorination facility upto 3 ppm, an under-construction 105 ft x 37 ft x 12 ft plastic fish crates washing shed.
Since there was no govt. agency to maintain the harbour at that time, the responsibility was of operating and maintenance was entrusted to fishermen’s cooperative society. In 1974 the harbour was transferred to Sindh Govt.
By the late 1970’s it was realized that the harbour originally designed to handle only 400 fishing vessel. And at that time the harbour was handling about 2000 vessels, resulting in serious congestion in the channel. Secondly the landing jetty was in dilapidated condition and that emergent measure s were required to rehabilitate it.
As a result the study was carried out in 1980 under the aegis of Asian Development Bank which earmarked funds for this project and the harbour was expanded at the cost of RS. 250 million. European Economic Community offered a grant of 12 million ECU to meet the project expenditure. The expansion of harbour included rehabilitation of the existing quay, storage facilities, water and power supply and dredging and widening of channel from 90 to 120 meter. New facilities included construction of floating pontoons, new fish shed of 2500 sq.metre, slipway and infrastructure of boat repair yard, new roads, open storage areas, new water supply and electricity facilities, ice supply berth, bunker fuel supply berth and the fire fighting equipment. The project was completed in 1990. Karachi fish harbour authority was established in 1984 for rehabilitation of the harbour and equipping it with accessories.
Korangi Fish Harbor
Because the congestion at he Karachi fish harbour it was strongly felt that another harbour nearby should be developed. Accordingly in august 1978 Asian Development Bank approved a project and engaged M/s Norconsult to conduct feasibility studies for the second fisheries development project in Paksitan. The consultant completed the assignment in 1979. Consequently ADB provide loan in December 1980 of 25.338 US million dollars for the construction of this harbour. Th basic objective of the harbour is to increase the foreign exchange earnings through new catch by accommodating large size vessels by exploiting the untapped fisheries resources in the sea.
The total project cost incurred so far is Rs. 916 million. The project facilities includes 709 meter long jetty, an auction hall an administrative building, a generator building, provision of service and utilities, power and utilities, sewerage and water, reclamation of 180000 sq. meter port area. Including 40,000 sq. meter for establishing processing units. And 50,000 sq.metre for boat building and repair facilities. Construction of 2.5 km of access road and 3200 sq.metres gravelled areas and port roads, provision for navigational aid equipment, internal development of industrial area etc.
The harbor was completed in 1992 but till today it is not operative,although, in recent past some deep sea fishing vessels are using Korangi’s landing facilties. The KFHA authority was established in 1982 and started functioning in 1983.
There were two main objective of the harbour , one was to remove a congestion at the Karachi fish harbour and another was to promote deep sea fishing by accommodating larger size vessels for exploiting fishing vessels beyond 12. N miles. Neither of these objectives have yet been achieved.
Gawadar Fish Harbor
Compared to Sindh, Balochistan has a longer coastline, offering fish resources at a large coast. However the quantity landed in Balochistan is less than the sindh. This is attributed to lack of infrastructure and basic marketing facilities.
One important fish harbor in Baluchistan is Gawadar which is situated at about 290 miles west of Karachi on the Balochistan coast. About 23 percent of the total fish catch for the country is obtained from Balochistan. Out of which the share of Gawadar is 37 percent. The construction of the Gawadar port was completed 1992. The project includes construction of 416 meter long and 65 meter wide jetty. To provide marketing facility for the daily fish landing, an auction hall of 3000 sq. meter is built over the jetty. For the safe and fast handling of fish catch, 500 hand trolleys and 1000 fish containers are also provided in the auction hall.
A storage shed covering an area of 1000 sq. meters is provided at the end of the jetty to facilitate the fishermen to get their needs like nets, spare parts etc. The powerhouse is equipped with 3nos 750 KVA generators. An underground tank of 150000-gallan s capacity is constructed. The port has its own dredges and support equipment comprising of dredge discharge line 4 km long, booster station, tug boat, work boat, launch and barge.
Pasni Fish Harrbor
In order to increase fish production by providing improved fishing technology and basic infrastructure and marketing facilities to improve the socioeconomic conditions of fishermen community along the Mekran coast, the ADB agreed to provide financial assistance for construction of a compact fishery harbour at Pasni, because of its best suited location.
The project was started in 1987 and completed in 1989. The total cost of the project was Rs. 563 million of which Rs. 495 million was provided by ADB and the rest by Balochistan Govt. The project included construction of 1225 meters long jetties, 647 long berthing jetties, 150 meter long berth and cargo jetty, 100 meter long quay, 150 meter south berthing jetty, 60 meter unloading jetty, 120 meter north berthing jetty. 67 meter causeway jetty, 150 meter landing beach, 1300 sq.metre market hall and 800 sq.met port authority building. Power supply is 320 KVA through diesel generating set.. There are two tanks of 800000 litters of diesel 250,000 litter of kerosene oil. Beside this there are six small ice plants with total production of 5000 ice blocks per day.
Some Facts About Fish Harbors in Pakistan
It was observed that all the four fish harbors are under different administrative control. For example Karachi fish Harbour is under Government of Sindh., Korangi fish harbor under the MINFAL, Government of Pakistan, Gawadar fish harbour-cum mini port is under Ministry of Communication, Govt. of Pakistan and Pasni fish harbor is under Balochistan Govt. This causes lack of coordination and consistency in the government policies wrt to harbours management.
An important factor common to three fish harbors namely Korangi, Gawadar, and Pasni is the lack of electricity connection from main transportation lines of KESC or WAPDA. The electricity obtained through generators is not sufficient for the needs of harbors. Private sector is reluctant to construct processing plants due to shortage of power and other utlities.
There is no direct export facility from the Gawadar and Pasni harbors, the catch is brought to Karachi for export which is a main reason for the deterioration of the catch, because of poor road conditions and the time required for transportation, e.g., 30-40 hours.
The following types of vessels are currently operating in fishing sector:
- Long liners
- Howra for fresh trash fish
- Dhonda ( gill-netters)
Consolidated summary of Registered Fishing Vessels is tabulated below:
Registered Fishing vessels (1991-98) (Unit: Numbers)
Vessels(Categories) 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
Trawlers 2007 2009 2028 2245 2252 2310 2427 2522
Gill-netters 1480 1513 1604 1865 1871 1945 2015 2236
Motorized cum-Sailing 2940 3153 3211 3424 3430 3526 3611 3695
Sail Boats (Marine) 5505 5598 5651 5884 5895 5922 6253 6285
Total 11932 12273 12494 13418 13448 13703 14306 14738
Trawlers – – – – – – – –
Gill-netters 633 682 765 860 941 1019 1111 1162
Motorized cum-Sailing 3086 3239 3313 3552 3826 4022 4195 4250
Sail Boats (Marine) 159 142 142 89 23 26 39 39
Total 3878 4063 4220 4501 4790 5067 5345 5451
Total Marine 15810 16336 16714 17919 18238 18770 19651 20189
Total Inland 17934 14473 14645 20402 16439 16760 16882 17689
Grand Total 33744 30809 31359 38321 34677 35530 36533 37878
Progressive addition 2935 550 6962 3644 853 1003 1345
Although there are around 20189 vessels registered for marine fishing but it is estimated that in actual the number of vessels in active operation can be as low as 4000.
This vessel uses a trawling net for targeted shrimp catching. The net size (eye) varies according to the need of the owner and crew and weighs around 0.6 tons. These boats require powerful and well-maintained engines for pulling the trawling net (gujja). The size of these trawlers varies from 30 to 45 feet keel length and the crew ranges between 12 – 20 men. Trawlers remain continuously in operation from August till May. These trawlers are required to be registered with MMD (Mercantile Marine Department). These trawlers are fitted with 66 -240 HP marine diesel engines as well as non-marine engines. For cost effective trawling operations on long voyage it is imperative that the vessel is fitted with marine engines capable of continuos running throughout the voyage.
This vessel uses net for catching fish, these nets are relatively big and weigh around 0.6 to 2.5 tons. The size of these trawlers varies from 45 – 60 feet keel length and the crew ranges between 15 and 34 men. They remain continuously in operation throughout the year except June, July and August. During gill netting there engines remain idle. These vessels are required to be registered with MMD (Mercantile Marine Department).
These are mainly deep sea fishing vessels over 100 GRT rating and are similar to trawlers but are equipped with winches for net pulling. Capacity is large and have powerful engines. These trawlers are required to be registered with MMD (Mercantile Marine Department).
Howra for fresh fish
These vessels are same as gill-netters with average overall length varying between 30 – 40 feet. Used for fishing voyage of one to three days. Use of ice is rather limited due to short duration. Most of these have removable fish holds.
Dhonda ( gill-netters)
These vessels are small lifeboats converted into fishing gill-netters. They use small nets and mostly kundi. Their size is below 30 feet and voyage ranges between one to three days.
Fishing Methods and Gears
Fishing nets used along the coast of the Pakistan are generally handbraided and are preferred as such by fishermen. Net making is a fisheries activity undertaken by fishermen themselves and by male and female members of their families, including children, particularly in the off-season of the southwest monsoons. Although small nets are inexpensive, larger nets, such as gill nets, may cost more than two hundred thousand rupees. The mesh size of fishnets depends on the types of fish sought. For example a mesh size of 2-3 inches is used for such fish as Hilsa, mackerels, catfish, perches and small sharks, 3-5 inch mesh for medium sized fish such as sharks, croakers and thread fins and a mesh size of 10 inch or larger sharks etc.
- Gill – Nets:
They are one of the most frequently used fishing nets on the coast of the Pakistan. Gill nets are basically of two types, namely, the drifting and bottom-set-gill net. They are large wall like nets are hung like vertical curtains of netting below the surface of water with the help of floats. They are made by joining end to end several rectangular pieces of nets to attain larger dimensions. The size of a gill – net operated from a fishing boat depends on the size of the boat itself. Net may measure 2400-2700 meter in length about 1600-1800 kg in weighing and has a life span of about five years. Drifting gill nets catch pelagic shoaling fish while bottomset gillnets aim for demersal species. They have a mesh size of 5-6 inches from knot to knot and are operated in depths of about 55 meter.
- Trawl -Nets:
These can be broadly be of two types, namely, the pelagic or mid-water trawl, which is used for catching shoals of pelagic fish and also for demersal species which occasionally rise to the surface end, otter-trawl or bottom-trawl, which is used exclusively for demersal fishing. The net is lowered by the pair of nylon ropes called warps, which are connected to two wooden otter boards which keep the net open while it is being dragged on the bottom. The fish are collected by untying the cod-end of the net. Trawlers in Pakistan do not have the winches for shooting and hauling of the net so that the operations have to be performed manually. The length of the avarage Pakistani trawl net is 23-30 m feet are operated in depths of about 50 m, mesh size-mouth is about 2.5cm.
- Beach Seines
This is also widely used net especially at the coast of Sindh, locally known as Bhaan. It is a large net about 140 m long and 2.5-4.5 m wide and has a mesh of about 2-10 cm. The bhaan is used for fishing along the beach in inshore waters used at high tide to catch mullets, Sillago sp., small pomfrets and shrimps.
Cast-nets are mainly used by small scale fishermen, principally used to catch shrimp and sardinellas. Locally known as ‘Jari’ are of a polyhedral shape and have a diameter of 3-6 metre in the fully stretched condition. These nets are used in very shallow waters are can be operated by a 1-3 men.
- Hand- lines
Locally known as Dori, simplest line with one or two hooks commonly used on the coast of Balochistan. They are used by individual fishermen for catching small fish like cuttle fish, sharks, mackerels, croakers and grunters.
Long-lines are of two types. The one used for pelagic fishing and another for demersal fishing. Each line is about 150 m long and bears baited hooks on snoods placed at a distance of more than I km. When operations begin one end of the baited line is dropped in the sea and anchored to the bottom The position of the anchored is marked by a buoy. The line is picked up after desired time (can be a week ) and fishes are collected individually from hooks every 24 hours. The fishes caught are sharks, eel, rays, and sawfish.
There is a need to introduce moderen fishing gears such as squid jigging, crab fishing with pots, opening fish trawl (for good quality finfish), a mechanized deep-bottom gill-net, purse scienes and gill-nets and lobster fishing with gill-nets.
Landed Catch and Incremental Potential
Pakistan is rich in marine fishery resources, where catching is done in the coastal areas of Sindh and Baluchistan. According to a survey there are more than 30 species of shellfish and over 70 species of commercial finfish including Sardine, Hilsa, and Sharks are available in the Pakistani coast. The major varieties of fish include Mackerel, Butterfish, Pomfret, Indian Salmon, Beckti, Sole, Tuna, Jew fish, Sea Bream, catfish, Shark and Eel.
Following table indicates the commercial importance of various species of fish in Pakistan. For example the top two groups namely Herrings/sardines/Anchovies and Red fishes/basses/Congers consist of over 50% of total catch in Pakistan, the top five categories consist of over 81% of total catch, and top eight categories consist of over 90% of total catch.
Percentages of Fish catch in Pakistan
S# F.A.O Group Percentage
- Herrings, Sardines, Anchovies 33.3
- Red fishes, Basses, Congers 17.5
- Tunas, Bonitos, Bill fishes 12.0
- Jack mullets, Sauries 11.4
- Sharks, Rays, Cimaeras 6.3
- Shrimp, Prawns 7.0
- Squids, Cuttle fishes, Octopii 1.2
- Mackerels, Snoeks, Cutlass fishes 0.8
- Flounders, Halibuts, Soles 0.4
- Shads 0.2
- Lobsters, Spiny, rock Lobsters 0.1
- Sea Spiders, Crabs 0.1
- Diadromous fishes 0.1
- Miscellaneous marine fishes 9.6
Source: FAO reports 1997 Data
The total fish catch in Pakistan in 1997 was 589,731 m. tons, of which 422,207 tonnes (71%) was marine fish and 167,530 (29%) m. tons was Inland fish. Of the 422,207 marine fish 285,767 (68%) came from Sindh, 130,406(31%) came from Balochistan, and 6,028(1%) came from EEZ.
Fish Production (in tonnes)
Year Marine Inland Total
1993 499,159 122,536 621,695
1994 418,574 139,525 558,099
1995 405,492 136,425 541,917
1996 395,397 160,092 555,489
1997 422,201 167,530 589,731
1998 433456 163524 596980
Fish catch in Pakistan by Area and Source (In tonnes)
Area Quantity (1998) Quantity (1997) Quantity (1996 Quantity (1995)
Sindh 106,611 102,508 91,367 75,380
Punjab 53,924 61,098 64,482 56,966
NWFP 840 743 1,271 1,503
Northern Areas 83 110 195 181
Dams and Reservoirs 2,066 3,071 2,777 2,395
Subtotal 163,524 167,530 160,092 136,425
Sindh 295,648 285,767 267,841 280,756
Balochistan 130,799 130,406 125,099 122,515
EEZ 7,009 6,028 2,457 2,221
Subtotal 433,456 422,201 395,397 405,492
Grand Total 596980 589,731 555,489 541,917
Source: Marine fisheries Department
The above figures clearly show imbalance in exploitation of marine resources. Despite having 70% of Pakistan’s coast line, Baluchistan’s share in our total landed catch is only 30%. The reasons are that Balochistan fish harbors at Gawadar and Pasni are much less developed and infrastructure facilities like cold storage, ice making, and road networks are virtually non-existent or non-operational. The Exclusive Economic Zone (35-200NM) comprises of about 85% of our total fishing grounds and add only 1% to our landed marine catch. This situation is mainly attributed to our obsolete fishing fleet which is not equipped to exploit marine resources in high seas.
Distribution of Landed Catch in Major Fish Types
From the total catch of 589,731 m.tons in 1997, the total marine catch is about 422,201 MT. According to the MFD sources out of this 211,100 Mt about (50%) was inedible known as trash fish which is mainly use for manufacturing fishmeal. (According to the industry sources the inedible fish catch counts about 70% of the total marine catch). The 211,100 Mt marine edible fish consist 27,4 44(13%) of shrimp and 183656 Mt (87%) consist of edible fish in volume. But the ratio is reverse in value. The 17,499 tonnes of shrimp exported in 1997, fetch about US$ 104,986(61%) and 59,791 of fish exported fetch US$66,599 (39%) of the total export value.
Specie wise Landing
In the absence of shrimp farming activities of any significance, fishery export industry in Pakistan is mainly dependent on capture fishery for shrimp operation from the coast of Sindh and Balochistan provinces. Altogether there are 15 species of marine shrimp in Pakistani waters under two families of Penaeidae and Solenoceriadae of which commercially important species fall under the Peneidae family. Of these Kiddi shrimp alone accounts for nearly 49 percent of the total shrimp production. However banana shrimp, Indian white shrimp and red-tail prawn form the so-called ‘Jaira’shrimp is commercially the most important category. Shrimp of Metapaneous spp are collectively called ‘Kalri’ in local languages. All these species occur at different salinity’s and depth ranging from brackish waters and coastal waters to a depth of some 170 m.
Shrimp fishery is active from August to February, mostly in shallow waters. Yearly shrimp’s landings have been fluctuating widely from last 10 years ranging from 27921 Mt in 1990 and 25269 Mt in 1998. It is clear that the maximum sustainable level of exploitation has already been reached in the available resources. This has also been confirmed by stock assessment studies indicating the Jhaira shrimp in Pakistan was overfished even as early as 1986. It is obvious that there is little scope for any substantial increase in shrimp production from capture fisheries in Pakistan.
The first major attempt to culture shrimp in Pakistan was made in 1982 when the Department of Fisheries, GOS started a shrimp farming pilot projection Richhal Creek, Gharo as part of the ADB-financed Aquaculture Development project. Private sector investors namely Lipton Farm, Baloch farm and Mansour Sheriff farm also invested in the projects.. Though all these projects had demonstrated the commercial feasibility of shrimp culture in Paksitan, none has susucceeded in continuing the operations.
TUNA RESOURCES AND LANDINGS
The volume of Tuna landed in Pakistan has fluctuating widely during the past decade. From a meager 8541 MT recorded in 1980 the quality nearly doubled the next year, rapidly increasing to peak of 31854 MT by 1988, and it continue in this range till 1995. The catch of Tuna and Tuna like species in 1998 were recorded 23075 MT. According to the gathered data from the total landings around 55 percent is the long tail tuna.
The Species of Tuna and Tuna like fishes in Pakistan are:
- Yellowfin tuna
- Longtail Tuna
- Kawakawa tuna
- Skipjack tuna
- Frigate and bullet tuna
- Other tunas of scombroidei
The fishing vessels engage in Tuna catching are motorized gill-netters that carry out fishing operation in traditional way. Since most of the boat for tuna catch do not carry ice, the catch is gutted and salted on board and landed in wet salted condition, the fishing trip along the coast ranges from 15-25 days, sometime more than a month.
In Pakistan tuna fishery is a relatively neglected activity. The GOP has taken steps to encourage commercial exploitation of oceanic tunas by encouraging foreign tuna long liners as per the new Deep Sea Fishing Policy.
CEPHALOPOD RESOURCES AND LANDINGS
Among the three common groups of cephalopods mostly squids and cuttle fish is being exploited with only stray catches of octopus, mostly from coastal waters. This type of fishing is mostly taken by haila a one-day fishing. There is no targeted fishery for cephalopods and almost the entire quantity landed is obtained as a bycatch from shrimp fishery.
SPECIES WISE NOMINAL CATCH (FINFISH/SHELL FISH) Qty in MT
Species(English name) 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
Bombay Duck 121 98 101 95 91
Seacat fishes 42112 45444 49428 54437 55934
Greater Lizard fish 87 43 45 28 22
Dragger-tooth pike-conger 5725 4692 4901 5637 5080
Groupers 7617 8600 9793 10474 13991
Sillago whitings 365 423 289 266 218
False trevally 4 3 2 4 5
Snappers 2524 3145 2002 2394 3192
Japenese threadfin breams 752 952 516 1783 969
Grunts 4849 5537 5268 6010 6221
Spotted croakers 6674 8133 7348 8751 9762
Croakers nei 16134 17068 12586 11677 9863
Emperors 1660 1643 1549 1911 2334
Longsspine kingsoldier bream 3092 2440 2176 2252 2717
Seabreams nei 774 918 921 806 1255
Scats 2 3 3 3 9
Indo pacific flathead 2 2 2 5 9
Barracuda 2923 2342 2878 2683 2664
Mullets 19039 17280 17631 18935 17580
Threadfins 853 812 825 884 969
Hairtail scad 5244 6511 4010 3325 3505
Queenfishes 13760 16495 15957 19002 18689
Travallies 4003 4631 3972 5391 6523
Black Pomfret 2199 3066 2221 2322 2109
Common dolphin fish 2054 2570 1841 1658 1892
Silver pomfret 2985 4156 2799 3788 4089
Cobia 1541 2306 1574 1449 1254
Indian Oil sardinellas 65050 55177 52290 51930 44079
Thryssas 18111 17564 14091 16113 13165
Dorab Wolfherrings 1204 2289 1580 1931 2051
Clupeoidei nei 37209 31426 27576 26650 25487
Seerfishes 10536 12330 10108 12009 12980
Long tail Tuna 2384 1860 4121 4073 4161
Tuna nei 17176 13063 14760 17949 18914
Sailfishes 843 691 675 710 2086
Black Marlins 2089 1993 2159 1620 1780
Hair tail 6320 6093 9073 11583 12232
Requiem Sharks 30226 32888 34337 31179 35261
Guitar fish 1442 1208 1422 1481 1564
Rays 18481 16445 15563 15769 17576
Sawfishes 50177 49964 51432 48429 51335
Finfishes nei 8821 17700 16306 16600 17033
Swimming Crab 650 1877 3200 3989 5680
Palinurid spiny lobsters nei 669 615 724 765 782
Panaeus shrimps nei (white) 6021 5723 6123 6115 5311
Metapenaues shrimps (brown/pink) 7120 6981 7602 6801 6204
Kiddi shrimps 16023 12919 14047 16722 13854
Cephalopods nei 18482 5287 5908 8988 6525
TOTAL 418,574 405,492 395,357 422,201 433,098
Source: Marine fisheries Department
Existing Fisheries Resources and Incremental Potential
Assessing accurate figures for the biomass of different types of fish is a difficult task, because it requires large vessels with electronic and other devices, depth measuring equipment and also the services of highly qualified experts etc.
Various Government agencies, FAO, UN agencies, and Marine Fisheries Department of Govt. of Pakistan have undertaken studies to determine fishery resources in Pakistan but all have come up with different estimates. After the stock survey in 1987 Marine Fisheries department has however arrived at a certain figure for different species of Fish.
The following table depicts the biomass, maximum sustainable yield (MSY), landings and incremental potential.
TABLE -13 (in tonnes)
Resources Biomass M.S.Y Landings (1998 Incremental Potential
Small Pelagic Species 700,000 300,000 86,847 213,153
Large Pelagic Species 80,000 60,000 39,285 20,715
Demersal Species 500,000 300,000 26,7985 32,015
Shrimp 88,000 35,000 25,369 —-
Cephalopods 20,000 12,000 6,525 5475
Mollusks 8,000 4,000 625 3,375
Crabs 10,000 6,000 5680 320
Lobster 1,300 600 782 —-
Mesopelagics 10,000,000 5 000,000 — 5,000,000
TOTAL 11,407,300 5,717,600 433,098 5,275,053
Source: Marine fisheries Department
It will be noted from the above table that shrimp cephalopods, mollusks, crabs and lobsters do not have much incremental potential. Therefore the only additional benefits to be derived from these species is to have value added processing. Considerable incremental potential exists in small pelagic species like sardines and anchovies and in large pelagic species such as tuna and mackerel. These species can be used for canning and other forms of processing of sardines, anchovies and tunas. Tuna and mackerel can also be exported raw (sashimi).
The large incremental potential of about 5 million tons exists in mesopelagic lantern fish of one inch to two inch long which is found in 300 to 1000 meters depth in day time and 50 to 500 meters during nighttime. It is good only for making fish meal or fish paste, preferably on board.
Exploitation of Un-tapped Resources and Preservation
Most of the marine catch is done within 12 nautical miles from the coast. As most of the boats are small with little catching and preserving equipment on board. This reduces the catch per boat and therefore increases the cost of fishing on per kg basis.
Deep Sea Zone 1 (12 to 35 nautical miles) although reserved for local fisherman, remains under utilized for paucity of modern boats equipped with necessary gadgets for catch and preservation.
The area between 35 to 200 nautical miles declared as EEZ Zone 2 is reserved for foreign as well as Pak Flag vessels, which operate under license from the Government of Pakistan. The catch in Zone 2 is very nominal and therefore it remains to be exploited. Foreign vessels have been found to operate in Zone 2 without license from the government and even enter into Zone 1 with collaboration with local firms.
The immediate need is in the shrimp fishery is to enforce measures, which will stop over fishing because of too many trawlers. This will allow the stocks of “jhaira” and “kalri” Shrimp to recover and production to rise. These measures should also minimize the danger of depletion of shrimp stock (including “kiddi”) through overexploitation.
The shrimp aquaculture (along creaks and shallow waters near the coast) have not been developed. Fish processors are apprehensive about the future prospects of shrimp catch because of pollution hazards decreasing discharge of the Indus River due to the construction of dams and barrages and over exploitation.
Un-exploited available yield of demersal species is 74,000 tons a year. Most of this is located in the portion of the continental shelf beyond the 20-meter depth line. Financial and Technical assistance is needed at this stage to convert the shrimp trawlers to gill netting, and long lining for exploiting under-utilized demersal stocks. Potential exists for catching pelagic such as Tuna, Mackerel and Shark. Cuttlefish and squid resources exist on the continental shelf and oceanic squid beyond the shelf.
A large amount of mesopelagic resources remains un-exploited and an annual catch of several hundred thousand tons can be expected. No effort has been made to explore the commercial possibilities of alternate fisheries. These include Seaweed’s, Crustaceans (other than shrimp) Mollusks, and Echinoderm.
Marine resources such as seaweed, small coastal and pelagic shrimp and clamps
Inhabiting mangrove areas are not presently exploited. It is felt that some significant economic potential is tied up in these resources and further investigations are justified.
Disposition of Landed catch (Case at Karachi Fish Harbor)
The marketing channel of the fish is more or less similar to those of agricultural products, where Land lord provides a Land and the peasant grows the commodities. The produce is then sold in the market through commission agents to wholesalers and then to retailers and finally to consumers. The income after deducting the cost of direct inputs is shared by the Landlord and the peasant.
Similarly, the flow of the fish is channeled from boat owner/fish catcher to commission agent, to wholesaler, to retailer, to consumer for local market. It goes from commission agent to exporter/processor to importer to consumer for export market. As described in the channel distribution chart. The owner of the vessel is usually separate from the fish catcher, known as “Na Khuda”. The boat owner lends his boat to the “Na Khuda” on profit sharing basis, generally equally divided. Thus, if the catch is sold, let us say, for Rs.15, 000 the owner will deduct the direct cost of such items as Oil, ration to the crew, ice, and salt. No depreciation, repair, or replacement costs are included in it. If the expenses (for example) comes to RS. 5000 the remaining Rs. 10,000 will be divided equally, Rs.5000 each by the boat owner and fish catcher. Since the boat remains in the water for the several days, the “Na Khuda” takes a crew with him, which generally consist of his family members. But if the family members are not available, he may hire crew and pay them from his own share of earning.
Channels of Distribution for Fish and Fish Products
The fish catcher brings his catch to the auction hall, where commission agent (called mole holder) authorized by Fishermen Co-operative Society (FCS) awaits the arrival of the catch. Only the authorized commission agent can process the sale and no fishermen can sell his product directly to wholesaler, retailer, consumer, fish processor or exporter.
The commission agent arranges the auction for the catch. Purchasers assess the value of the commodity, make their bids, and the commodity goes to the highest bidder. The fisherman pays 6.25 percent of the gross value of the commodity, which is divided equally by the Fishermen’s Cooperative Society (FCS) and auctioneer.
The fish is passed on from the catcher via the commission agent to the processor/exporter to importer or the local wholesaler, then to retailer, and finally to consumer.
The fish is generally brought to the auction hall/market on the fish harbor where the processor/exporter or wholesaler purchase the catch. Almost all the processing units are located in Karachi. Therefore the catch meant for processing/export is either purchased at harbor, or is brought to Karachi immediately if purchased at other fish harbors. The purchase made for local sale is bought by wholesaler who delivers it to the retailer in local market, who ultimately sells to consumer.
Structural Problems of Marketing
In Pakistan, primarily warm water fishing is done, and marine fishing is done in the coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan provinces, which have severe warm climate. The fish harbor of Gawadar and Pasni are located in Balochistan, some 300-400 km away from Karachi, which puts severe constraints in marketing of fish.
Lack of Basic Infrastructure
Aside from the geographic constraints, lack of infrastructure facilities is another impediment to smooth marketing. To begin with there are virtually no road network to quickly transport the fish. For example, driving from Quetta to Turbat, Pasni, Gawadar and Panjgur there is hardly any metalled road at all. Thus transportation became extremely difficult. The inadequate number of non-refrigerated transport vehicles are also old and dilapidated. Frequent breakdowns and lack of repair facilities also affect the fish distribution. Then there is a non-existence of ice-making, refrigeration, and refrigerated transport facilities, which poses problem of quick disposal.
Paucity of Funds
The fishermen are, by and large, extremely poor. Thus, when the catch is brought for sale, they are over-anxious to cash in their catch. The middlemen takes advantage of this situation and pay as little as possible. Another factor is that commission agent generally finance the social events of fishermen such as marriages of their daughters, repairing of their houses, purchase of staples, etc. Fishermen being unable to pay off their loans in time are forced to sell their fish at the dictated prices.
Illiteracy and Traditionalism
Since the fishermen are illiterate, they are not aware of their importance and bargaining position.
Channels of Disposition of the Catch
A substantial quantity of fish is consumed locally. In addition, small pelagic and by catch of trawl fishing is being used for production of fishmeal. Remaining balance is exported in salted dried, frozen and chilled form. The following table gives the year wise disposition of the catch.
Channels of Disposition of Fish (Marine & Inland) (in tonnes)
Disposition Channels 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
Marketing fresh 229,128 238,314 237,925 261,358 268,736
Freezing 52,378 41,476 48,449 56,122 53,498
Canning 160 32 120 90 –
Curing 42,546 42,149 44,448 46,545 46,046
Subsistence 44,685 34,458 36,103 36,482 38,550
Fish Meal 189,202 185,488 188,444 189,134 190,150
Total 558,099 541,917 555,489 589,731 596,980
Source: Marine fisheries Department
In an earlier study carried out by the ADB in 1986, it was estimated that only about 26% of the total catch was consumed locally as food fish. Accordingly per capita food fish supply has been worked out at 1.6 kg.
Production of Marine Edible/Inedible Fish
Due to the poor marketing practices, amongst various other reasons, the production of the fish has not only stood still but if you see the figures of 1991-96 from production table it has shown a declining trend.
Due to indiscriminate catching of fish, a large portion of total fish caught turns out to be trash fish, which is either used for fishmeal or other non-edible purposes, or it is simply thrown away. This is one of the cause of low income of the fishermen, because trash fish fetches a very nominal price.
According to the figures given by Marine fisheries department the percentage of trash fish has ranged from 38% to 51% of the total fish catch for last 10 years, and the overall average for the 10 years comes to about 42%, which is very high ratio for any fish catch.
Note: (According to the industry sources the percentage of trash fish is about
60-70% of the total catch)
Quantities and percentage of Edible and trash fish of the total Marine fish Catch year (1987-1998) (in tonnes)
Year Total Marine Catch Edible fish Trash fish
Qty % Qty %
1987 336,129 166,042 49 170,087 51
1988 348,897 184,254 53 164,643 47
1989 341,222 174,851 51 166,371 49
1990 369,802 196,946 53 172,856 47
1991 402,795 225,405 56 177,390 44
1992 431,465 245,758 57 185,707 43
1993 499,159 310,755 62 188,404 38
1994 418,574 230,372 55 188,202 45
1995 405,492 220,004 54 185,488 46
1996 395,397 206,953 52 188,444 48
1997 422,201 211,100 50 211,100 50
1998 433,456 243,306 56 190,150 44
Source: Marine Fisheries department
Total Production of Edible Marine and Inland Fish Available
The percentage of trash fish in the marine catch is very high, whereas Inland fish is almost all edible. Although the total quantity of marine fish is high, the quantity of edible fish is less. The following table shows the total availability of edible fish available in Pakistan.
Total Quantity of Edible fish available in Pakistan (1987-1998) (in tonnes)
Year Marine Edible fish Inland Fish Total
1987 166,042 91,631 257,673
1988 184,254 96,545 280,799
1989 174,851 105,009 279,860
1990 196,946 113,158 310,104
1991 225,405 115,907 341,312
1992 245,758 121,653 367,411
1993 310,755 122,536 433,291
1994 230,372 139,525 369,897
1995 220,004 136,425 356,429
1996 206,953 160,092 367,045
1997 219,545 167,530 387,075
1998 243,306 163,524 406830
Source: Marine Fisheries department
Auction System at Karachi Fish Harbour
Immediately after landing catch has to pass through the auction process for sale. The authorized appointees of Fishermen Cooperative Society called Moles carry out auction. On return from the voyage, the boat captain called Nakhuda informs the boat owner and the mole holder to arrange for the auction. The boat crew brings catch to auction hall where mole arranges a display of catch for interested buyers. After the display mole invites the buyers to bidding process and acts on boat owner’s behalf to gain maximum price. The buyer giving the highest acceptable bid is considered the final bidder and the catch is sold to him. The mole issues a gate pass in favor of buyer allowing him to take catch to his factory and in return buyer agrees to pay the agreed sum to the mole in near future which later on mole pays to boat owner and to the crew. The mole in return of his services deducts 6.25% of the total catch as commission out of which the mole pays 3.125% to FCS as contribution by fisherman for the social development projects aimed towards fishermen.
The mole in order to attract boats also acts as a working capital financier for the voyage and also extends short term to long term financing to fishermen community for the social purposes. Running mole is a very profitable business as the running finance required to attract one boat is about Rs100, 000 and the net auction commission is more than the initial loan. Secondly, the running finance is paid in form of commodities so mole also makes money in procurement of commodities.
Due to unorganized setup, limited number of buyers and lack of economic awareness among fishermen, middlemen exploits the situation and make abnormal profits. The market is dominated by few huge buyers, who control the pricing mechanism. All middleman and genuine buyers have agreed to an informal buying cartel under which they decide what to buy and at what price. At the end of voyage the boat owner and the boat crew are in desperate need of money therefore they sell there product at through away prices to middleman who then resells the product to other traders and the final products costs 3 to 4 times more expensive than the initial auction price.
Karachi is the largest fish auction point in Pakistan, it nearly handles about 400,000 tons of fish every year, but still there is no proper auction system. All auction is on word of mouth basis and all existing documents are not properly filled. The documentation standards are below international levels and the are no sources for reliable data.
Process Flow: From Harvesting to Processing
The Principal craft used by coastal fisherman are known as trawlers, gill-netters, and horas. A traditional wooden trawler undertakes a fishing trip for about 10 to 25 days duration. The basic input of the industry is in a haphazard and dilapidated condition. Most of the boats are wooden, non-mechanized, old and out-dated. They have therefore outlived their utility. Facilitates of On-board chilling system is missing, which are responsible for lot of waste. Third none of these fishing vessels are equipped with navigational or electronic devices like sonar, echo sounders or other fishing aids. Fourth is the lack of the education and training among boat -builders have made the matter worse.
The fisherman over 90% of whom are illiterate, are still following the centuries old technology of “feel and See”. They take their wooden hull boats in the shallow water, throw their nets and leave it to the nature for getting some fish. Some time they may stay in the water for a whole week and return with very little or nothing at all. They are not even aware of the navigational aids as fish finders and echo sounders. Technology to discriminate between the edible and trash fish, species of various kinds, and size of fish, etc. must be taught to fisherman to be more productive.
Due to the non-mechanization of the boats and non-availability of the navigational or electronic devices like sonar, echo sounders or other fishing aids it was observed that 50% of the total voyage time is wasted only on finding of the fish.
Average Voyage time
May Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Feb March
The fish holds of these trawlers are not insulated. For preservation of catch the insufficient crushed ice is applied. Since no plastic crates are used for storing the catch on board, the catch is piled up in the fish hold with the result that the two third of the piled up fish of the whole catch is crushed and de-shaped under pressure. All these factors lead to deterioration of the quality of landed fish. Due to the post harvest losses, the poor quality fish fetches less price to the fishermen. Therefore to contain these post harvest losses, the fish holds of the traditional boats urgently needed to be insulated. A cooling and refrigerated system must be installed and use of plastic crates for storing the catch in the fish hold should be mandatory. Careful handling at the port should also need to be encouraged.
Landing (at harbor)
Fish harbor is one of the most important infrastructure facilities in the fishery development. It not only allows the boats to operate but also enables fishermen’s to dispose off their products for local consumption and export. Karachi fish harbor was constructed in early 1960 to accommodate the fleet of about 400 vessels. At present the harbor is handling about more than 4000 fishing vessels, resulting in serious congestion in the channel. There is no any system of vessel movement after unloading its catch, after unloading of its catch the vessel stays and leaves the jetty, when it has to go for another voyage, which takes at-least 3-4 days. As the catch is arrives at the jetty, It is handled very Un-hygienically right from Unloading to Auction hall and then to market. After the catch is unloaded, there is no any preparatory area for the de-icing, sorting and the grading and it directly comes in to the auction halls. The deicing, sorting and grading is done on the floors or at the deck of the boats with the channel water. The Landing of long voyage boats is usually starts in the late evening and continue till morning, in the mean the auction is continue according to the species landed at that time. The landings of the fresh catches of haila & Dhoonda (a short trip boats) is done after 3.00 pm in the evening and continues till 6.00 pm. There are two cold storage facilities for storing the catch are in the both auction halls but are not being properly used. There is no any arrangement of washing and proper handling of catch. The sanitary and hygienic conditions at fish harbor are not according to the international standards.
Auctioning of the long voyage iced boats is starts in the 6.00 a.m. in the morning and continues till 12.00 noon of both the shrimps and fish. The auction of fresh catch is done from 4.00 p.m. to 6.00 p.m. in the evening. In this time the catch remains on the floor of the auction hall without any proper chilling facility. The grading and the weighing is done in the auction hall. There is no any proper system of sorting and Grading. After the auctioning there is a lack of handling equipment and proper transportation to the processing unit or peeling shed or to the local market.
Landing at the other fishing centers is first transported to the Karachi fish harbour for the auction then it is distributed. From the nearby centers like Ibhraim Haydri and Korangi it is brought through trucks, vans and Suzuki’s packed in ice, covering short distances. However for long distances transportation from Karachi fish harbour to inland markets in the Punjab and Sindh province, railways are the principal carriers, often the catch is de-headed and gutted before icing to enhance quality.this is the most famous and cost-effective mode of transportation.
Fishing boats operating off Balochistan coast also act as a fish carriers, collecting catches from Pasni and Gawadar or other fish landing points to Karachi harbour. The time taken by different mode of transport ranges from 24 to 30 hours and from boat is 15 hours, in all the cases the catch is ice and packed in wicker boxes.
Seafood Processing Industry
Fish is a perishable food item therefore need for preservation is immense. In order to maintain quality of fish, to increase shelf life of the product and to ensure continuity of supply the concept of preservation and curing have been in use in one form or the other since centuries. In fisheries sector preservation of fish quality means freezing the natural qualities and attributes of the product immediately after the catch (in developed countries) or after the landing (in developing countries). Freezing here means decreasing the temperature of the fish product from 5 degrees to – 40 degrees.
The fish processing has three major areas namely:
- Value Addition Process
Value Addition Process
As discussed earlier value addition in fish product is a combination of 3 major factors namely:
- Product Attributes
- Brand Name
- Distribution Channel
Under the processing section of the report emphasis is on Production process and Product attributes. Both product attributes and production process depends upon the selection of the final product and the target market. The market trends very clearly suggests that there is excessive demand for quality oriented ready to eat fish products. These products enjoy a premium market rate and sales are virtually guaranteed. Below are the production flow charts for most common species of shrimp and fish.
The three major forms of freezing are:
- Nitrogen Freezing
- Individual Quick Freezing
- Blast Freezing
Nitrogen freezing technique is a very recently developed technique and is currently under experimental phase. The process preserves the quality and freshness of the product with in a minute and the shelf life of the product is about 1 year. As the technique is in the experimental phase the operating costs are too high and it is very rare in use.
Individual Quick freezing
Individual quick freezing technique commonly known as IQF is most widely used method and most cost effective method of freezing. The IQF process takes only 3 to 8 minutes (depending upon the process and the product) to bring down the product temperature from 5 degrees to – 40 degrees and the shelf life of the product increases from a few days to about 6 to 8 months. IQF is the most recommended form of freezing and several countries including EU are now planning to make IQF as a pre requisite for imports. The final customer of an IQF product is household individual who purchases it for his consumption.
Blast freezing technique is the most basic form of processing which is only used in developing countries. The process takes about 8 hours to freeze the product and the costs more. The product sells at a discount and it has major selling problems. The only customer for this product is a re-processor who after some value addition finally passes it through an IQF process.
Packaging is as important as processing. Product has to be packed in food grade, convenient, attractive economical and market oriented packs with proper brand names on it. The broad packing requirements varies from product to product but some of major types of packaging are:
- Vacuum Bag Packing
- Shrink Wrapping
- Jumbo Packing
Current Status of Fish Processing in Pakistan
The fish-processing sector of Pakistan is in far better shape than the fishing sector. but still the processing sector had not kept upgrading with the International technological advancements, the change in demand patterns and customer preferences for which the country paid the price in form of losing market share and lower average unit prices.
Except for Blast freezing plants (so called processing units) there is no modern value added fish processing plant producing products like breaded buttered shrimps, fish fingers, fish cakes, fish paste, fish sauce or surimi products. Three major categories of exports oriented fish processing activities mechanical means in Pakistan are freezing, canning and fish meal production. In traditional sector curing is the most popular method of fish preservation method which accounts for considerable quantities of finfish, fish maws and shark fins.
The are 27 processing units with a total installed capacity of about 450 tones per day.
Out of 27 only 21 plants of total 300 tons per day capacity are in operation with others closed down due to several reasons. The average capacity utilization for the processing sector is about 25 %.
All the existing plants have secondhand blast and plate freezers (about 10 to 15 years old) with a few as exception. These old plants consume about double of electricity (electricity is biggest portion of operating expense), as a result product does not remain competitive and the over all risk increases.
There are 11 canning plants in with a total installed capacity of 106 MT/Day, with only one in operation. The only operational plant is crab meat-processing unit, which has only survived because of being non-traditional in nature. Shrimp canning industry flourished in late sixties and early seventies but later on died very rapidly on emergence of very cheap but quality oriented products from South East Asian countries and extensive dependence on imported cans (as a well established local canning industry still does exist).
The small size of pelagic and the BI-catch caught by shrimp trawlers are used for industrial purposes in the production of fishmeal. Besides, small pelagic fish caught in creeks and inshore water by small crafts are also utilized in production of fishmeal.
All fishmeal plats are located in Karachi near Ibrahim Hydri. Most of the fish meal plants are 25 to 30 years old with no oil extracting provisions as a result losing huge sum of money. The most common practice is to use sun-dried fish and fish offal, which are sterilized with steam and again dried in sun. Then it is pulverized in a grinder and packed in jute bags. Some plants also use mechanical dryer after sterilization. The net yield during this process ranges from 20% to 22 % and the protein is between 40% to 50%, which is well below international standards.
Fishmeal industry is in the decline stage of product life cycle as local industry is not able to compete with international fishmeal producers. All local fish meal producers will be wiped out by Chinese product which is better in quality and is still cheaper than the local product.
Fisheries Related Rules And Acts
- The Pakistan Fish Inspection & Quality Control Act, 1997.
- The Pakistan Fish Inspection & Quality Control Amendment (Ordinance), 1998.
- The Pakistan Fish Inspection & Quality Control Rules, 1998.
- The Sindh Fisheries Ordinance, 1980.
- The Balochistan Sea Fisheries Sea Fisheries Act No. IX of 1971.
- The Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997.
- The Agriculture Produce (Grading & Marketing) Act 1937.
- The Pakistan Animal Qurantine (Import and Exports of Animal and Animal Products) Ordinance, 1979
- The Karachi Fish Harbour Authority Ordinance, 1984.
(All the above documents are available in the MFD’s document of Health conditions for European Commission.)
Legislation of the Country
(a) The Agricultural Produce (Grading and Marketing) Act, 1937.
This act provides authority and control for the grading and the marketing of the agricultural produce. Dry fish, shellfish, and fishmeal are graded under the provision of this act.
(b) The Baluchistan Sea Fisheries Act No. IX 1971: provides authority of fishing crafts, fishing license and processing of fish and fishery products in the territorial water of Pakistan along the coast of Balochistan. Contravention of any provision of the Ordinance is punishable by one month imprisonment or with a 5000 rupee fine or both.
(c) The Pakistan Animal Quarantine (Import and Export for Animal and Animal Products) Ordinance 1979: This Ordinance provides for control over Import and Export of animals and animal products and issue of “health Certificate” to regulate the trade and to prevent the introduction or spread of diseases.
(d) The Karachi Fisheries Harbor Authority Ordinance 1984: provides law to carry out efficient operation of harbor facilities and to inspect periodically hygienic conditions of processing plants, ice plants, cold storage and other related activities.
(e) The Sindh Fisheries Ordinance, 1980: This Ordinance provides rules and regulations for marketing, handling, transportation, processing and storage of fish and shrimp for commercial purpose and sale of fish used for domestic and inters provincial trade. Contravention of this Ordinance is punishable by imprisonment up to six months or with by a fine of 10,000 rupees or both.
(f) The Coastal Development Authority Act Sindh Act No. XXVIII 1994: It provides law for planning, Development operation, management and maintenance of coastal areas including development of fisheries, livestock, horticulture and agriculture.
(g) The Pakistan Environmental Protection Ordinance No XXVII: It becomes effective at the beginning 1997 provides law for protection, conservation and improvement of environment for the prevention and control of pollution including biodiversity, ecosystem, effluent, hazardous substance, emission and water pollution.
(f) Pakistan Fish Inspection and Quality Control Act, 1997: The Government has passed a number of Acts for Inspection, Grading, quality control and marketing especially for exports. For example exports of fish was covered under Agriculture produce (Grading and Marketing) Act 1937 and Animal Quarantine (Import and Export of Animal and animal products) Ordinance 1979. The Sindh government passed fisheries Ordinance, 1980. But the latest is Pakistan Fish inspection and Quality Control Act, 1997. Which deals with the registration of the fish processing plants and fish exporters, and constitutions and functions of inspection committee. The function of the committee includes inspection of fish processing plants, fish exports, handling of fish and fishery products. It also spells out the powers, duties and functions, of fishery officers and penalties on the processors/exporters for contravention.
The Acts and Ordinances are in Vogue but are not stringently practiced. Marine fisheries Department issues certificates of quality and Origin for fresh, frozen, canned fish/shrimp, conducting pre-shipment inspection of the consignments to ensure that proper standardization of fish and fishery products are enforced.
The following criteria are used to ensure quality control of fish and fishery products.
- Pakistan standard for fish and fishery products as defined in Pakistan Standards Institution (Certification Marks) Ordinance, 1961.
- Code of practice for fish/shrimp-Codex Alimentarious Commission of FAO/WHO.
In order to promote the quality of fish and fishery products, following measures are suggested:
- Fishermen and producers should make use of adequate quantity of ice for the preservation of fish/shrimp. For this purpose, economically cheap but clean ice should be made available to fishermen and processors. The use of flake ice must be encouraged.
- Chlorinated ice is superior to ordinary use. Therefore chlorinated ice should be made available to the fishermen/producers.
- Installation of flake ice plant be encouraged and the use of flake ice be popularized among the fishermen/processors.
- Plastic fish boxes be introduced for hygienic handling and transportation of fish and shrimp.
- Refrigerated seawater technology be adopted for preservation of fresh fish and shrimp on board the fishing vessels.
- Apart from the usual shrimp products, other varieties of fish, such as Sardine and Tuna be utilized by the canning industry.
- Marine fisheries department be entrusted with the sole responsibility for supervising the quality control and inspection program for fish and fishery products.
- Compulsory quality control program be enforced to ensure quality assurance for fish and fishery products.
- Modern processing technology (liquid nitrogen technology) be encouraged for freezing fish and shrimp.
Pakistan’s export earnings in the fish and fish products have reached US $ 171 million in 1997-98. The importing countries which are very much quality conscious and are now developing stringent quality standards and hygienic criteria for exportable goods. Lack of mandatory seafood inspection and quality control program in Pakistan sometimes results in selling of some detrimental products by unsavory dealers/exporters. EU is major importer of seafood products from Pakistan, however according to the regulations of European commission; the exporting countries must comply with their standards. An inspection mission of European commission visited Pakistan in December 1997 to evaluate conditions of seafood production and processing and pointed out many shortcomings especially on hygienic conditions at fish harbor and processing units and imposed a ban on sea food exports from Pakistan from July 1 this year, which lasted for over three and half months. Which gave a loss of US $ 46.3 million to the industry in value if we compared the figure with the last year period.
7.1 Upgradation of Existing Traditional Fleet
Boat Building, the basic input for fisheries is in a haphazard and dilapidated condition. Most of the boats are wooden, non-mechanized old and outdated. They have therefore out lived there utility. They require frequent repairing and are poor in quality. Secondly, facility such as cold storage, and chilling on board are missing, which are responsible for lot of waste. Third our boats are devoid of equipment such as echo sounders and fish finders and modern technology is missing. Which is used on aluminum or fiber glass boats. Fourth, the lack of education and training among the boat builders have made the matters worse.
If un-explored fisheries resources are to be exploited, existing fleet needs up-gradation. There is a very strong case for a boat with necessary gadgets such as wheelhouse equipment, fish finders, net haulers and drums gantry and tillable. The industry is hampered by lack of power and high material cost. Manpower needs to be educated and trained in use of sophisticated equipment. Solutions to these problems include tax free imports and local manufacturing of fishing equipment, pilot schemes to assist progressive boat owners and fishermen to begin using new techniques and setting up of fishermen’s training center.
Boats need refrigeration facilities on board to keep the catch according to the required standardization, so that it can fetch the higher prices. There is a great need of fiber glass boats and development of ancillary industries such as manufacturing of nets, hooks, floats, ropes etc. if boats are equipped with such facilities earning could double or go up three times and export to neighboring countries and Africa could rise significantly.
There is a need to improve construction methods and quality of wooden hull boats constructed at Karachi boat yard. Presently boats are being manufactured in the unorganized sector mostly manually. Therefore, there is a need to establish boat-making industry in the organized sector so that quality boats could be built. Besides improving the manufacturing of wooden hulls pilot scale manufacturing of fiberglass boats should must begin, as is being done elsewhere in the world because wood is becoming more and more expensive.
Aside from Karachi there is also a need of boat repairing facilities at other fishing centers such as Pasni and Gawader. Government should assist fishermen in meeting the high cost of procuring gear. Benefits of electronic fishing aid must be propagated. There is need for more extension services in order to popularize new fishing methods among fishermen who are sometimes conservative in adopting new methods and to modernize the fleet.
There is no modern plant manufacturing fish nets on scientific lines. Fishermen make nets manually but these are of inferior quality. The basic raw material is namely synthetic fiber is both made locally as well as imported. Thus net manufacturing should be undertaken in the organized sector.
7.2 Improving Post Harvesting Methods
Right from the catch, the post-harvesting period starts. After the catch, fish is stored in fish hold in the plastic crates, which is totally lacking. Where ice is placed but there are no freezing facilities. After a week or so, the fish is brought on the harbor where it is placed on the floor of the jetty. Sometimes fish is thrown from the boat, which affects its quality. Then it is taken to processing units for export. The wholesaler purchases it for local sale who dispatches it to different cities but the fish is not properly handled. More important factor is the absence of refrigerated transport and freezing facilities.
Inferior quality shrimp is priced 20 to 30% lower in the international market then high quality shrimp of the same size.
According to the industry sources after following the right handling procedures
- White shrimp price can go from US$12 to $14
- The price of brown and pink shrimp can go up from $7.5 to $10( about 30% to 40% increase)
- The price of PUD can go to minimum $2.5 from $1.5.
There are four principle factors resulting in low quality.
1 Handling, processing and packing do not confirm to international standards.
2 microbiological criterion for frozen shrimp is not maintained.
3 Freshness is not ensured.
4 Size separation is not correct.
Quality control through an effective plant inspection program is the only way for increasing export earnings.
7.3 Infrastructure Development including harbors
Fish harbors equipped with necessary logistics and support are essential for the growth of marine fisheries sector. In order to develop fisheries on commercial lines it is necessary that harbors are available at or near major fishing centers. New harbors at Korangi, Gawader and Pasni constructed with the help of Asian Development Bank can go a long way in the infrastructure development of this sector. There is a need for greater utilization of these harbors constructed at a huge cost. At present fishermen are not utilizing the new harbors to optimum capacity for want of other necessary infrastructure such as power. Full utilization of harbors could only be ensured if there were adequate power supply and road network.
The sanitary and hygienic conditions at fish harbors particularly at Karachi need to be maintained as per international standards so that seafood export from Pakistan may not be effected.
As pointed out power and road are the most important ingredients of infrastructure, the lack of which is retarding the utilization of new fish harbors. In addition there is need of ice factories, cold storage for the preservation of fish catch, a lot of which is wasted due to lack of proper facilities near the harbors. Refrigerated transport is missing which is causing damage to fish during transportation particularly during hot summer of the sea coast. At present fish is transported in trucks with a piece of cloth cover.
7.4 Actions to be taken
7.4.1 Fish Hold: To control post harvest losses, Fish holds will be insulated with Fiberglass initially in 1000 existing fishing vessels. The fish holds currently in use are all made of wooden or galvanized steel and the insulation is of thermopole sheets, which starts catching rust after some time of installation or use, that in turn contaminate the fish/ice/water, as it comes in to contact with. By installing fish holds of fiberglass the quality of fish stored in the fish hold will improve multi-fold. Insulation will be provided by polyurethane. Insulation properties of polyurethane are far superior to those of thermopole. In addition polyurethane also has buoyant properties, which are of great value to boats and crafts while they are out in the sea. The better the insulation of the fish hold, the less energy will be expended to cool/maintain the temperature inside the fishing hold, which in return will save money in the form of fuel/ ice and less wear & tear of the machinery in use.
7.4.2 On board Chilling System: The fish hold with chilling system will be introduced initially in 1000 existing boats. By installing the chilling system in the fish hold the fish products will be kept at a low temperature. The chilling system eliminates the influence of the heat penetrating from the outside, and that saves the ice solely for chilling of the fish. In this way by installing a chilling system can reduce the ice consumption on board. This means a considerable saving of expensive ice and less ice to be transported in the fishing boats.
7.4.3 Plastic Crates: made of fiberglass to store the catch in the fish hold and at the harbor will be mandatory for every fishing vessel. About 600,000 crates will be required for 3000 fishing vessels.
7.4.4 Navigational Equipment: As it has been explained earlier, due to no use of technology, fifty percent of the total voyage time is wasted in finding the fish. New Package of mechanical equipment of Fish finders, Echo sounders, GPS and communication system will be introduced in initially 1000 fishing boats. These equipment and devices are important tools, which ensure very safe and accurate navigation.
7.4.5 Fish Flow System: As it has been explained at present, there is no any system, which can assure the hygienic flow of the fish after Un-loading at the jetty. To- day it becomes more and more deteriorate as it crosses different stages of sorting, grading, icing and weighing. New flow system (as enclosed) of the movement of fish from the boat to processing unit or market suggested by the SMEDA, will be brought in action.
7.4.6 Information System: At present there is no any authentic record of daily landings of different categories of fish regarding their catch, weight, prices etc. Computer based information system for Pre-Auction procedures of sorting different types of species, Grading, weighing and re-icing and the system for the activities done after the auction like keeping database for bidding, pricing, commission, fees, issuing slips and bank deposits etc. will be introduced.
7.4.7 Flake ice plants: At present the chilling of the catch is done by the block ice. After the catch the cut or chopped block ice is applied to preserve the catch on board, which damage the skin of the fish. That reduces the fish price due to the appearance and more important give access for bacteria contained in the blood and slime to enter into the flesh of the fish, which is entirely against the EU standards. The average ice block size is 80 kg and the usage per trip in the large boats is about 350 to 400 blocks of ice. The price per block is about RS. 120. Flake ice is the best solution of this problem. It is produced in the small pieces without sharp edges. The smaller pieces ensure a good contact with the fish resulting in a fast chilling rate. As the pieces are without edges, the ice will not gives bruising and tearing of the fish skin. Investment in the Flake ice plants will be done through the private sector. For the ice requirement of about 300 tonnes per day, ten flake ice plants will be required to meet the need of the whole industry.
7.4.8 Peeling sheds: The most critical need of the industry is the peeling sheds. At present it is in the haphazard condition. As the Land allocation issue for the peeling sheds has been resolved between the FCS and KFHA. Loaning for initially ten peeling sheds of at-least 1000 sq.-yard of each, will soon be started for the private sector with the help of banks.
7.4.9 Water Desalination Plant: At present the water supply to the Karachi fish harbor is from the KWSB. Which is at very low pressured and quiet insufficient to fulfill the need of industry of about two million gallons per day. Lack of the adequate water supply causes the sanitation problems, which is of major concern for our exporters. To fulfill the two million gallons per day water requirement of the industry according to the EU standardization, water desalination plant will be operationalize on BOOT basis. SMEDA’s engineering team is currently working on the feasibility of this project and will be finalized soon.
7.5 Financial Package according to SMEDA’s programs
To successfully meet the export targets according to its potential the industry requires many improvements in the Harbor management, in the fleet to control the post harvest losses and in the services and supplies like Flake ice machines, Desalination plant, peeling sheds etc. All the calculations pertaining to these requirements have been workout and the financial package (as enclosed) to meet the whole requirements including the working capital has been prepared.
At present our team is working on the credit formula to fairly disperse the loans, with the help of banks. Very soon the loaning will be start in this sector.
7.6 Board Restructuring
After identifying the key problems in the Fisheries sector by the research team of SMEDA and having a long discussions with the industry, at every step of the Value chain of Industry right from Harvesting to the Marketing, it has been decided with the mutual consent of the SMEDA team and the Industry that to keep the harbor neat and clean from corruption and for the smooth development of the fishery sector according to the strategy developed by the SMEDA, there should be a very dedicated management in which every stakeholder should have an opportunity to participate. So it has been decided that Korangi (FH), KFH & FCS will be working under one Chairman. The Chairman or CEO is a Commodore SI (M) of Pakistan Navy, who has been Deputed by the Ministry of Defense. Two Chief Operating officers (COOs) for each harbor, will be appoint by the Board and will report to Chairman. The Other Directors of the Board will be from the Industry and the Government. At Present the Board consist of fifteen members. Seven Fishermen and Eight from Government. After restructuring all the Government nominees will be replaced. In the new government nominees there will be a boat owner, processor, Sect. Fisheries (Prov. Govt.), Dir. Gen. (MFD), nominee of SEMDA & EPB and One nominee will be from Banking sector.
7.7 Role of the Board
Our research came-out with four core issues regarding the management of Fleet, management of Harbor, Management of Auction and the Fishermen’s Welfare. The new board will be entirely responsible to encounter these issues as it is explained in the Role of the board and the chairman.
7.7.1 Management of Fleet
- Regulatory: Trawler improvement program with Insulated Hold/Chilling and Plastic Crates will be mandatory as per EU Standards.
- Communication Program
- Enforcing Licensing Regulations
- Introducing new Trawlers/Technology
- Training/ Manpower Management
- All other needed Regulations
7.7.2 Management of Harbor
- Harbor Improvement:
(a). Water Desalination
(b). Un-loading Equipment: (Hoists Trolleys, Crates, Washing Equip etc.
(C). Flake Ice: Manufacturing and Delivery System—- by Private Sector.
(d). Reception Hall:
Washing/ Hose pipes/ grading & weighing equipment.
Washing Tables—— by Private Sector.
- Estate Management:
Leases, Roads, Sanitation etc.
- Operation Management:
Development of Manuals and enforcing operating procedures for all aspects of harbor Operations.
- Control Tower: Communication System
- All other Regulations.
7.7.3 Management of Auction
- Implement new suggested process flow system from Un-loading to Transportation to the processing units.
- Develop and Implement Pre-Auction Computer based information System.
(For sorting different types of species, Grading, weighing and re-icing)
- Develop and Implement Final Auction Computer based information System.
(For Bidding, prices, Commissions, Fees, issuing slips, Bank Deposits etc.)
- All other needed Regulations at this stage.
7.7.4 Management of Fishermen’s Welfare and Environmental Concerns
- Introducing environment friendly technology and arranging training programs.
- Next Phase of the Strategy
8.1 Development of Gawadar and Pasni Fish Harbors
Compared to Sindh, Baluchistan has a longer coastline, offering fish resources on a larger coast. The quantity of fish landed in Baluchistan by the fishing fleet however is less than that of Sindh. This is attributed to the lack of infrastructure and basic marketing facilities, which has limited the expansion of marketing outlets to major consuming centers.
Gawadar is situated at about 290 miles west of Karachi on the Baluchistan coast. About 23 percent of total fish catch of the country is obtained from the Baluchistan coast. The share of Gawadar is 37 percent of total fish catch on Baluchistan coast. Gawadar is a district town and is served by daily flights to Karachi and by weekly flights to Oman (Muscat) by PIA. A considerable amount of fish is wasted here due to the lack of processing or freezing facilities. This is the reason that all the export is through Karachi. Fish catch of Pasni and Gawadar is brought to Karachi for exports. This is in the first priorities of SMEDA to develop these harbors.
8.2 Development of Coastal-Aquaculture
So far harvesting of natural stocks is being done without any management measures and replenishment program. The annual stocks are limited and not sustainable under such circumstances. Fishing in Pakistan is an open access fishery. To supplement the production, coastal acquaculture of much sought after species of shrimp and finfish should be undertaken. In south East Asian counties the bulk of the shrimp production is now coming from aquaculture farms. But in Pakistan no real efforts have been made in this direction.
Shrimp is one of the most valuable among different categories of fish. Therefore, its demand, both domestic and foreign, is rising rapidly. On the other hand, its supply is not keeping pace with the demand. There has been an overexploitation of shrimp along the coast resulting in depressed catches. This trend confirms that the present catches are at or near the maximum sustainable yield. Further exploitation of Shrimp resources by using modern techniques would merely accelerate depletion resulting in decreased commercial yield.
In view of above backdrop, shrimp aquaculture, has recently assumed importance and can emerge as a new agricultural activity. It would generate a new income source for our farmers. Shrimp is not only a potential source of Foreign exchange but also protein for human consumption. India is exporting about 30,000 tonnes annually and getting double its capacity every year by developing coastal aquaculture throughout the country. Similarly, shrimp aquaculture can be undertaken in Pakistan on large scale in order to raise domestic availability that is negligible and foreign exchange earnings through exports.
8.3 Development of Inland Fish farming by emphasizing on Intensive Farming Methods
Inland Fish Farming
Pakistan has inland water resources like rivers, ponds, lakes, dams, and water logged areas, which provide ground for fishery development. The inland catch during 1997 was 167,530 tonnes, which is about 28% of the total catch. Of the inland catch, the major share is that of Sindh with (57%), followed by the Punjab (39%), NWFP and the other areas (4%).
The share of Fish farm in In-land fish production is less than 20% because of lack of information to farmers on technology. The total number of Farms is around 7,000 of which 4069(58%) are in Punjab, 2348 (33%) in Sindh, 391 in NWFP, and 92 in other areas of Pakistan. Existing farming methods are not developed because of various problems stretching from production to marketing. Farmers have very little information with regard to the requirements of feed, medicine, seed, etc. Marketing and storage pose serious problems. Hygiene is not maintained and proper freezing facilities are missing.
One reason why people have not invested in fish farming is because of low yield. Although not much capital is required, but there is a need of continuous supervision throughout the year for giving proper feed, medicines, water, etc.
In Pakistan there has been emphasis on extensive farming and that is why fish farming has not developed. Instead there is a need for intensive farming where Land is properly utilized and great attention is paid towards feed, seed, water etc. for higher yield per acre.
SMEDA team has started work in these directions and will come-out with the strategy in a very short span of time.
- List of Contacts
- Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock,
Government of Pakistan
Pak Secretariat Block ‘B’
Tel: 51- 9203307
Fax: 51 – 9221246
- Marine Fisheries Department (MFD)
Government of Pakistan
Mr. Moazzam Khan
Director General MFD
Fish Harbour, West Wharf Karachi.
Tel : 21- 2312923
Fax: 21- 2316539
- Mercantile Marine Department (MMD)
Principle officer MMD
70/4, Timber Mart
Tel : 21-2851306
- Maritime Security Agency (MSA)
Director General MSA
Maritime Security Building,
West Wharf Karachi.
Tel : 21- 9214618
- Export Promotion Bureau (EPB)
5th Floor Block A, Finance & Trade Centre
Tel : 21- 9202718
- Small & Medium Enterprise Development Authority(SMEDA)
Sector Head Fisheries
5th Floor Block A, Finance & Trade Centre
Tel : 21- 9206491
- Karachi Fisheries Harbour Authority (KFHA)
Government of Sindh
Managing Director KFHA
Fish Harbour, West Wharf Karachi.
Tel : 21-2314204
- Korangi Fisheries Harbour Authority
Ministry of Food, Agriculture & Livestock
Government of Pakistan
Kprangi fish Harbour, Chashma Goth, Landhi.
Tel : 21-5016719
- Pasni Fish Harbour
Director General Pasni Fish Harbour
Tel: 0863- 210212
- Gawadar Fish Harbour
Director General Gawadar Fish Harbour
- Fisheries Department
Government of NWFP
Shami Road, Peshawar
- Fisheries Department
Government of Punjab
2- Sanda Road Lahore
Tel: 42- 7321172
- Fisheries Department
Government of Sindh
Block- 50, Pakistan Secretariat,
Tel : 21-9203314
- Fisheries Department
Government of Boalochistan
Tel: 0863- 210212
List of fishery Related Industry and Associations
- Fishermen’s Co-operative Society (FCS)
Fish Harbour, West Wharf Karachi.
Tel : 21-2310315, 2313139
- Pakistan Sea Food Industries Association
C-6, Fish Harbour, West Wharf Karachi.
Tel : 21- 2313601-2
- Pakistan Sea Food Industries Association
M/s. long Wharf Seafoods (Pvt) Limited
B-3, Fish Harbour, West Wharf Karachi.
Tel : 21-2313010
- Sindh Trawlers Owners & Fishermen Association
213, Askary Building, Fish Harbour
West Wharf, Karachi.
Tel : 21- 2132644
- Karachi Fishing Boat and Trawler Owners Group
Mole No. 33, Fish Harbour, West Wharf, Karachi.
Tel: 21-201855, 201259
- Mole Holder Association
- Ismail & Company
Fish Harbour, West Wharf Karachi.
Tel : 21- 201776
Fishery Related Research & Educational Institutes
- National Institute of Oceanography (NIO)
Director General NIO
ST-47, Block- 1, Clifton, Karachi.
Tel : 21-5860028-30
- Centre of Excellence in Marine Biology
Department of Botany
University of Karchi
Tel : 21-470572 – 479001
(Some international Fisheries Organizations/Groups)
- Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO)
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla
00100 Rome, Italy
web. site : www. Fao. Org
- The Marine Product & Development Authority, India
MPEDA house, Panampilly Avenue, Panampilly Nagar, Cochin.
Tel : 91-484-311979, E-mail: email@example.com
P O Box 10899
50728 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Tel : (603) 2914466 Fax: (603) 2916804
- East Fish
P O Box 0896, UN Centre, Medtermolen 3, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
Tel : (45) 35467180
- Ministry of Agriculture & Cooperatives, Thailand
Department of Fisheries
Tel: (66-2) 282-4513
Fax: (66-2) 280-1502
- Department of Fisheries, Malaysia
Wisma Tani, Jalan Sultan
Salahuddin 50028, Kaula Limpur
Tel : 03-298-2011
- Ministry of Fisheries & Aquatic Resources, Sri Lanka
Tel : 546183
- Cabin Plant International A/S
Roesbjergvej 9, DK-5683 Haarby
Tel : 45 63 73 20 20
Fax: 45 63 73 20 00
- China International Fisheries Corp.
31 Minfeng Lane, Xidan, Beijing, China.
Tel: 86-10-66081039, Fax: 86-10-66011021
- Swede Fishery Group
ICH Trading AB, Vastmannagatan 9, SE-111
24 Stockholm, Sweden
Tel: 46 8 20 81 90 Fax: 46 8 20 81 11
Web site: www.swedefish.org
- Processing feasabilitiy
- Boat/catch Movement Plan + Sketch of New receiving Halls
- Specifications of A Model Boat
- Report on Auction System and Recommendations
- Report on trash Fish Processes